Table of contents:
- The Emergence of Embroidery
- How to choose fabric for embroidery
- Equivalent features
- Experimenting with materials
- A bit of terminology
- Why is this important
- Preparing the uniform for work
- How to embroider on a uniform: master class
- How to mark uniforms
- How to transfer the plot to another fabric
- Types of evenly woven fabrics
- Embroidery on uniform for interior decoration
How to embroider on a uniform? And what is it anyway? Not everyone who learns to sew is interested in learning to embroider. Some people are intimidated by the variety of stitches, while others prefer not to make the process too easy. If you are new to the world of needlework, chances are you are wondering what fabric to use for hand embroidery.
The Emergence of Embroidery
Material is one of the key points for the project. It will greatly influence the process of work and the final result, so it is natural to strive for the best option. The fabrics used for embroidery come in a variety of thread counts and are made from cotton, linen and blends. The choice will depend on what you plan to do and the embroidery technique you are going to use. But there are so many nuances in this matter, and the choice is so wide that it can lead to confusion. The technique of creating a pattern using various stitches is not a modern invention. Previously, there was no uniform, comfortablefor work, canvas, familiar to modern needlewomen. On what then did they embroider? Let's take a little excursion into the past.
The history of embroidery dates back to the Bronze Age. In China, silk embroidery appeared around the 5th-3rd centuries. BC. The finds of embroidered fabrics in Greece belong to the same time. In Europe, the earliest models use the quilted stitch, chain stitch, and split stitch. In late antiquity, pieces of jewelry found on Coptic robes and vestments were sometimes embroidered using these techniques. Several methods were used to make the amazing medieval wall hangings that are mostly preserved in monasteries. The most famous of these, the Bayeux Tapestry, was made using the technique of chain stitch, stem stitch and the so-called Baye stitch, which is used only in Scandinavia.
Of course, in ancient times there was no special canvas for embroidery and auxiliary elements to mark the picture. But until now, simple linen fabrics with a uniform weave of threads are still popular with needlewomen. Working with them is sometimes even easier than with the standard canvas from the set.
How to choose fabric for embroidery
Like a canvas for an artist, the material is the basis of hand embroidery. But which one to choose? The answer may surprise you: anyone. The most common variant found in cross stitch kits is Aida canvas. Its size and density depend on the plot. Canvas "Aida 14" is the most popular and is considered the standard. But theoretically you cango to a sewing or needlework store and choose any fabric you like as the basis for your project. Linen, cotton, muslin, which is also called calico in some places, cambric, silk, quilted cotton, organza, twill, some synthetic fabrics, including rayon and polyester, are suitable for this purpose, but it is best to avoid too stretchy.
Usually craftswomen do not limit themselves to standard materials offered by needlework stores. Many of them prefer a special fabric - uniform, outwardly resembling canvas. It can be of different colors and densities. And the composition is also different. Good options for embroidery will be materials with a looser weave. These are muslin, cotton, linen, burlap.
Basically, you can use any fabric that is strong enough to hold stitches and allow a needle and thread to pass through. But there is one nuance. While you can use just about any fabric as the base for your project, some settings are preferred for certain functions or because they work better with certain techniques.
It's hard to come up with one simple selection formula, but there is a way to narrow down your choices. Tightly woven varieties with an even weave are best for surface work, while looser ones are ideal for drawing techniques. The fiber content of the fabric can even be blends of cotton, linen, viscose and polyester, or even hemp and bamboo. PrevIn order to embroider on a uniform, it is important to choose a project and find out which fabric will work best.
Experimenting with materials
Much depends on the technique. When you're about to choose a fabric for a new project, consider weaving. The gaps between the threads should allow the needle to slip easily between them, no matter how many stitches you make. But don't box yourself in by picking a specific fabric for one occasion and not using the "wrong" one for them. Because it is more important to observe and navigate depending on the situation. You may be able to break all these rules and successfully complete the task even on a fabric that is not suitable for your task.
A bit of terminology
Let's expand our embroidery vocabulary by learning some useful terms to make finding the right fabric easier. Let's start with the most important definition: ground fabric. This is the name of the material that you use as a base for your embroidery. Sometimes when the fabric is too fragile to support a seam, you can use a backing or stabilizer that you attach to the back of the ground fabric. This extra layer makes the base stronger and able to withstand heavier seams.
The warp is a type of thread in weave fabric that runs parallel to the vertical edge and perpendicular to the weft. Understanding what it is is important for cross stitching. When you need to calculate the pitch for a stitch, it is usually about the warp thread. Crosses his ducks. This is the type of thread that goesperpendicular to the edge. It crosses the warp, intertwining with it, creating a canvas on a loom. Thus, there is a difference in the appearance and texture of fabrics. The warp and weft threads may intersect differently and have different sizes and weights.
Why is this important
Thread count is the number of threads per square inch of fabric in both directions. This concept includes the quantity of both warp and weft. In other words, the higher the thread count, the denser the fabric. A loose weave makes the holes at the intersection of the threads more obvious, which is useful for some embroidery techniques, such as counting or cross stitch. The dense weave is more suitable for heavy sewing such as surface work. Before embroidering on a uniform, it is important to determine where the fabric has warp and weft, whether a stabilizer is needed and what is the number of threads in weaving. This knowledge will help you get the job done faster and make it easier.
Preparing the uniform for work
The smaller the weave, the easier the needle will pass, and fabrics with tighter weaves can make it difficult and even painful for fingers and hands to pull the thread. Before embroidering on a uniform, it must be prepared in a special way. In order to avoid shrinkage, it is recommended to pre-wash and iron the fabric. Washing is especially useful if the embroidery will be part of a quilt or a composition sewn from pieces of fabric.
If you are going to use heavy embroidery with beads, buttons or thickstitches, you must use the appropriate stabilizer as a base for the fabric. This will make it easier to embroider with fabrics that stretch. Otherwise, the work can become a little more difficult, especially if it is knitwear, then the stitches can be very deformed. Try several fabrics to see which ones you like best.
How to embroider on a uniform: master class
Another important advantage of using the studied fabrics is the low price per m2. It costs several times cheaper than a special canvas for embroidery, and the finished work looks even more interesting. The only important thing to keep in mind is that the evenness count may decrease after washing. That is why it is so important to properly process the material before work.
So, how to embroider on a uniform? If you carefully consider the fabric, it is easy to notice that outwardly it looks like a canvas. Only the location of the holes is slightly different. With ordinary embroidery on a uniform, when the needle passes through the holes located in adjacent corners, it will also turn into a cross. But two times smaller in size than on a standard canvas. For example, the canvas "Aida 14", which was already mentioned earlier. Therefore, to make a standard stitch, you need to count two weaves, and not one. Another option is to embroider as usual. Then the crosses on the material will simply turn out to be half as large.
When you are just starting to learn to embroider, it is best to use simpler and cheaper materials to practice with. For your more serious projects, it is better to buy a beautiful fabric.Narrow down your choices and choose the best quality from what fits your budget. Over time, you will develop an intuitive understanding of which fabric will suit your project best.
How to mark uniforms
Another difficulty may arise when applying guidelines for embroidery. In needlework stores, canvas can be sold immediately with markings, but it does not happen at the uniform. Therefore, to facilitate the process of embroidering a picture with a cross, you need to calculate how much fabric is needed for the plot, and divide it into identical squares using a water-soluble marker. A hint to the diagram will help you navigate.
How to transfer the plot to another fabric
The ratio of canvas and uniformity may be different. Much depends on the manufacturer and type of fabric. In kits for cross-stitching pictures, it is usually indicated which canvas is needed for the plot. This value is called a count. For canvas, this is the number of crosses or threads per inch. You can calculate how many of them there will be in 10 cm if you divide the canvas number by 2.54 and multiply by 10. Having obtained the desired value, it is easier to calculate how many holes on the fabric need to recede in order to accommodate the same plot for uniformity. Then you will need to measure the length and width of the area corresponding to the canvas count with a ruler, and apply the markup. For some specialized fabrics with a uniform weave, these calculations have already been made by other needlewomen.
Types of evenly woven fabrics
There are specialized variants of uniforms that are similar in propertiesto Aida. Evenweave fabric is a type of fabric with the same number of warp and weft threads per square inch. Its threads also have the same size and thickness. Evenweave brand fabrics are similar in appearance to canvas and are available in a wide range of colors. The weave forms a balanced, even mesh with visible holes between the threads. The number of threads varies from 32 to 18 counts. This brand is popular among cross stitch lovers for its easy-to-count square pattern.
Herta fabric is technically Aida and is ideal for beginners because it is very easy to count the right number of crosses on it. The Hardanger fabric is 100% 22 count cotton. She appeared in Norway and is woven with a double thread. This option can be used for satin stitch embroidery and techniques where thread counting is required. When using fabric for cross stitch, you need to work through 2 threads. The result is 11 counts. Pictures embroidered with a cross on such material look more accurate. And holes in open places are less noticeable than when using canvas.
Embroidery on uniform for interior decoration
How to put the acquired knowledge into practice? A wide range of cotton towels are also suitable for embroidery and can be used for both modern and retro projects. Various finished products are also ideal for this type of needlework. Embroidery can be an attractive decoration for tablecloths, pillowcases and blankets. Unusual decorationthere will be plots made in this technique on napkins, potholders and kitchen towels, echoing the design of your favorite dishes. Personalize your shirt or apron with a monogram or a unique motif. Any bride or new mother will appreciate this gift, made especially for their holiday.