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Pshimanovsky is one of those writers on whose works a whole generation was brought up. Today, few people remember his name. But about thirty years ago, this surname was known far beyond the borders of Poland, thanks to the film based on the novel by Janusz Przymanowski "Four Tankmen and a Dog".
About the author
Przymanowski was born in January 1922 in Warsaw. He also attended high school there. After the campaign of the Wehrmacht in 1939, he continued his studies at the 21st school in the city of Brest, received a certificate. In 1940 he was imprisoned by the Soviet authorities. He worked in a bas alt quarry, at a metallurgical plant, and as a tractor driver on a collective farm.
In 1943 he volunteered for the Red Army. In November, he ended up in the First Corps of the Polish Armed Forces. Since November 1944 he was a special correspondent and deputy editor of military publications. Janusz Pszymanowski reached Warsaw. After the war, he joined the Polish Workers' Party. He worked in the editorial offices of the following magazines: Skrzydlatej Polski, Żołnierza Polskiego, Wojsko Ludowe.
In 1961 he was promoted to colonel. Until the end of his life he was a member of the Workers' Party, from 1980 to 1985was a member of the Seimas of Poland. From 1959 he studied at the University of Warsaw as a historian, in 1966 he defended his dissertation. Janusz Pszymanowski was married twice. The writer died in July 1998 in Warsaw.
Debuted in the press in a 1950 novel about Poles during World War II. Then, in collaboration with O. Gorchakov, in 1960, the book “Calling Fire on Ourselves” was written about the Seschin underground, where Czech, Soviet and Polish patriots fought at a strategically important airfield in the Bryansk region.
In 1964, the story “Four Tankers” was published, which brought Janusz Przymanowski fame. The book has been reprinted several times. She came out, and as "Four tankers and a dog." A film was made based on it, which was a resounding success in the countries of the socialist camp.
In 1966, the documentary book “Studyanki” was published about the battle between the Nazis and the Poles. Janusz Przymanowski spoke about the heavy fighting near the village of Studzyanka, which changed hands fourteen times. Among the participants, he mentioned officer Zainutdinov.
The author received a letter from distant Uzbekistan, in which the Zainutdinov family reported that Pshimanovsky's book had become almost a shrine in their home. And then the author thought that this is how the memory of the soldiers who died for the liberation of Poland could perpetuate.
According to the book by Ovid Gorchakov and Janusz Przymanowski “Calling Fire on Ourselves”, a Soviet series of the same name was filmed, which was a success in cinemas.Przymanowski's name became known outside of Poland. The story told by the writer is based on real events of World War II. It tells about a twenty-year-old resident of the village of Sescha, Anya Morozova, and her fellow villagers who did not have time to get to their own. Remaining in the occupied territory, they organized an underground.
There was a military airfield nearby, where the Nazis deployed their bombers and attacked Moscow. The Soviet command set a goal - to destroy the object. The task of the underground group was to extract valuable data and transfer it to Moscow.
Over time, Polish, Czech and Soviet soldiers joined the locals. The group commits sabotage, thanks to their data, Soviet troops strike at the airfield. Hitler's counterintelligence is on the trail of the underground. Through the joint efforts of the underground and the military, the strategic facility was destroyed.
But the true popularity and love of readers of the socialist countries was brought by another work - “Four Tankers”. Janusz Pszymanowski spoke here about the valiant tank crew of the Polish troops, who had not only the side number, but also the proud inscription “Ore” on the tank’s armor.
None of the crew members had red hair: neither the commander Semyonov, nor the gunner, nor the gunner Yelen, nor the second commander Kos, nor the mechanic Saakashvili. The fifth member of the crew had red tan marks - a shepherd dog named Sharik. But he had nothing to do withtank name. The combat vehicle with the number 102 got its name in honor of the red-haired nurse Marusya, with whom Yan Kos was in love.
The first crew commander Semyonov was a meteorologist before the war. He was sent as an instructor to the tank brigade of the Polish army. A sensible and courageous officer, he will die in the spring of 1945.
After his death, the crew will be commanded by gunner Jan Kos. The war will find the young boy in the Far East, where he went in search of his father. Having learned about the formation of Polish units, he will run away with Sharik to the front.
Gunner Yelen, a Pole living on the territory of the Third Reich, was drafted into the tank troops. Once at the front, he captured a tank and went over to the side of the Soviet troops. In love with a girl whom the crew of the "Red" will release from German captivity. Driver Saakashvili, tired of explaining where Georgia is, introduces himself as a resident of Sandomierz. He is most attached to his car, a little embarrassed that he cannot find a girlfriend. But at the end of the war, fate brings him together with radio operator Lidka Vishnevskaya.
Second shooter Tomasz - the son of a Polish peasant, plays the accordion perfectly and, although everyone considers him a simpleton, he will prove in time what he is capable of. The fifth member of the crew is the dog Sharik, not a very obedient dog, but smart, more than once rescues his comrades from captivity and encirclement.
All members of the crew have some kind of talent: someone is an accurate shooter, someone is a strong man or an excellent driver. Together, they endure the hardships of war, where there is a place for sorrow, and joy, and friendship, and love.
“Memory of Poland”
In 1987, the work of Janusz Przymanowski "Memory" was published in two volumes. In the first - stories and memories of the heroes, photographs. In the second - the names of the fallen, indicating the place of burial. In the first edition, 78556 names were mentioned. After the publication, letters from relatives rained down.
The second edition should have had more than 600,000 - several years of work by a small group of enthusiasts led by Przymanowski. But with the release of materials, difficulties began - fruitless attempts to "get through to Moscow." Together with the archive of the Book of Memory, Janusz Przymanowski bought the rights to publish and took out a bank loan.
To pay off, he sold the house. A few years later, the materials ended up in Moscow. But the publishing house that undertook the publication was liquidated, and work on the book was suspended. The list of soldiers who died in Poland, on the website of the information retrieval center, is the result of the work of Colonel Przymanowski, a talented writer and screenwriter.
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