Table of contents:
- Types of fabrics
- Fabric structure
- Features of the location of the warp thread
- Determination of the shared thread in the fabric
- Simple tips to help you get the job done
- Cut fabrics
- How to make allowances when cutting a product?
The shared thread, or warp thread, indicates how the work of the loom is directed in the process of making matter. Tailors and cutters need to know how to spot it. The base is the main indicator of a stable and low-stretch material. It is used as a key characteristic in the design and cutting of fabric. Further in the article we will talk about the correct and quick determination of the warp thread.
Types of fabrics
Before proceeding to the definition of a shared thread, you need to understand the types of matter. These include:
- Material which is characterized by an organized lattice-weave. It is made on looms.
- Knitwear is a knitted fabric that has different types of weave. The resulting canvas is elastic and is a configuration of loops that are lined up in columns and rows.
- Nonwoven fabrics. They are made from synthetic fiber, which lacks the direction of the structure. These include interlining andsintepon.
Having an idea about the structure of the fabric, you can quickly determine its basis. Next, we will talk about its exact establishment.
If you look at the material in detail, you can see the perpendicular intersection of two fabric systems.
When comparing the equity and transverse threads, we can conclude that they have some differences. The first give a stronger shrinkage than the second. This is due to the fact that during weaving the warp threads are pulled tighter than the weft threads. They are fairly loose. Under the influence of steam, the warp threads return to their original position, and the fabric shrinks along the length.
The thread that runs parallel to the loom is called the warp. Its second name is the shared thread on the fabric. Along its edge, the working density increases, so a strong and non-spreading edge is formed. It got the name edge.
Features of the location of the warp thread
To accurately identify the equity thread, you need to know the following:
- The warp is always along the edge of the fabric.
- The combed pile is in the direction of the pile.
- If you look at a light weight fabric in the light, you will notice that the location of the warp is more straightforward than the weft.
- In half-woolen and half-linen fabrics, the fractional thread is cotton.
- In a semi-silk fabric, the warp thread is silk.
- The warp weight in most fabrics is greater than the weft weight.
Mark the direction of the shared thread on the pattern with an arrow.
Determination of the shared thread in the fabric
To clarify the location of the base, the following tips are used:
- If the matter is new, then it is difficult to make a mistake, because it is along the edge. The lobar differs from the transverse in its low extensibility. A piece of fabric is pulled in the hands, in the direction along and across. Where the material is less elastic, there is a shared thread.
- You can set the location of the threads by sound. To do this, you need to sharply pull the fabric along the share, as a result, a loud pop will be heard. In the opposite direction, the sound is more muffled.
- The fabric can be additionally examined in the light. Visually, it will be noticeable that the warp threads are smooth, dense and even. They are more twisted than transverse.
If there is an edge on the fabric, then the same method is applied as on other materials. The grain thread will be parallel to the edge of the knitted fabric.
In the case when it is cut off, it is not difficult to determine the location. You should carefully look at the canvas: where the posts and loops are visible. The direction of the columns corresponds to the location of the base.
Certain varieties of knitted fabric must be handled with care, because its loops can unravel, forming "arrows".
On some varieties of such a fabric, the direction of the threads is determined along the edge, which is wrapped in a tube. On the basis of the canvaslies flat.
There are no rows with loops on a loose canvas, and if you cut off the edge, then determining the direction of the warp becomes a difficult task. However, there are secrets according to which the share thread is determined accurately on any fabric.
To do this, take a piece of fabric and bring it to a light source (window or lamp). The warp threads are usually more evenly spaced than the transverse threads and are more visible.
Simple tips to help you get the job done
Some cutters and tailors quickly determine not only the location of the base, but also the front and back sides. To do this is not difficult. So they inspect the fabric before cutting.
The front part is usually smooth, and imperfections in the form of knots and irregularities are brought to the wrong side. Holes are located along the edge of the fabric - they remain after the release of the material from the machine.
If you carefully examine them, the needle entry and smooth surface will correspond to the wrong side, and the exit and rough fabric will correspond to the right side.
When arranging patterns on fabric, the direction of the base should be applied to each piece. If these recommendations are not followed, the finished product will lose its appearance and stretch after washing.
The process is carried out along the edge. In magazines, finished patterns have already marked the location of the shared thread. The line is extended to the end of the pattern.
When it is laid on the fabric, the line is placed parallel to the edge and the base. The pattern is pinned with pins, outlined with chalk andcut with seam allowance. Separate parts are cut out along an oblique line. This arrangement is indicated on the pattern. The part is laid out parallel to the fabric diagonal.
From how the master determines all the directions of the threads on the fabric, and in accordance with their location, the product is cut. The appearance and duration of the finished garment depend on this.
How to make allowances when cutting a product?
All patterns are made without special allowances for seams, in the process they are outlined along the contours of the parts when placed directly on the fabric. Width at sides is 1.5cm, 4cm at hem and sleeves unless otherwise noted.
When cutting a model from knitted fabric, the allowances are reduced to 0.5-1 cm. After all, in this case they are ground using an overlock.
When cutting parts with a fold, then lay them out not only along the warp thread, but also along the fold of the fabric, exactly to the edge. In such a situation, allowances are not recommended. After the final layout on the material, all the details are pinned with needles and circled with tailor's chalk. Mark seam allowances and reference lines.
Accurate determination of the location of the shared thread is necessary in order to obtain high-quality sewn clothes as a result. In addition, you need to consider the silhouette, type of fabric. The necessary arrangement of parts and a large number of other technical subtleties allows the designer to realize the idea of obtaining a special product.