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Agree, not all of us can confidently say that we can play chess well. Most people are only familiar with how the pieces move, their names, and the order in which they are placed. But chess is one of the most interesting games. It is quite difficult to guess where this or that move can lead you, and who will win. Many of those who are far from this exciting game, and even novice players, ask: "Is it true that professional chess players know almost all other people's moves and can predict the opponent's actions?" Do not be surprised, but it really is. In chess, openings are tactics and strategies in which you can predict your opponent's actions in advance.
In chess, openings appeared more than two hundred years ago. And in the 19th century they had already become high art. At that time, chess was a very popular game, it took pride of place among other competitions. Then a large number of championships were held, they were paid much more attention than in our time. And grandmasters devoted a lot of time to creatingstrategies that allowed them to win with a minimum number of losses. Imagine, long before computers appeared, it was possible to calculate the game for five, or a maximum of ten moves! You are probably wondering how the invention of the computer influenced the game of chess. A huge breakthrough was made, as it became possible to calculate the most complex algorithms and tasks. It was with the help of a computer in chess that openings helped to calculate moves even for twenty transitions. It makes the game predictable, doesn't it? Unfortunately, using these automatic calculations did the trick, turning the mind game into a mechanical one - you can anticipate what your opponent will do, and you will always know the best way to go.
Main principles of openings.
- Develop patterns as soon as possible.
- Be sure to control the center.
- Provide security for the king.
- To counteract the enemy in every possible way.
- Link your game plan to middlegame and endgame.
There are openings in chess for white and black - for example, "Scottish game". This option attracts the player by the fact that he himself chooses the direction of the struggle. At the same time, black pieces have to adapt to tactics. What are debuts? Listing.
- Half closed.
Quite often they do not distinguish between a semi-closed and a closed opening,combining them into one - closed. The flank can also be attributed to this category. In addition, all openings are subdivided according to their correctness. So, they can be right or wrong. We should also not forget that openings in chess for the 1st category are somewhat different from others.
It was in the 20th century that the most active development of debuts began, absolutely new beginnings were created. In the second half of this century, the study of tactics was essentially reduced to thinking about some options that arose in already familiar beginnings. At the end of the century, Mark Taimanov said: “… chess theory develops in half steps somewhere between 20 and 25 moves. No new strategy, no new ideas, no new systems…” Due to the fact that openings in chess have been developing for several centuries, as well as powerful computers and high-quality programs, unfortunately, tactics in themselves have ceased to be the most creative part of the game. Almost all existing options have been carefully analyzed. Today, as already mentioned, the miscalculation reaches 15-20 moves, and maybe even further.
Chess openings for beginners
Because of such elaborateness, the requirements for the game become very serious. Therefore, all novice players must know the basic options for openings. And it's impossible for a professional to play without them these days. He must have a huge set of openings, plus carefully work them out. Because of this, most chess players are critical of openings. They believe that the initial stage of the party"terribly computerized." The indignation is caused by the fact that in the opening stage there is almost no place for the art of chess. It is believed that tactics and strategies are not the most difficult thing in chess. Most players, even beginners, thanks to the knowledge of the main openings, can fight an opponent stronger than them at the same level. Fischer chess is called a way of avoiding the problems of learning tactics, since it is impossible to memorize variations due to the random position of the pieces at the beginning of the game.
But all novice players must learn openings. Without them, they will not be of any interest to the enemy, even with certain skills. Nowadays, openings in chess are very popular, and therefore it makes no sense to think about their significance and advantages. That is why in order to learn how to play, you just need to study them. And some you should even memorize - chances are you'll need them on the game board.