American chess player Bobby Fischer: biography, interesting facts, photos
American chess player Bobby Fischer: biography, interesting facts, photos
Anonim

Among the most eminent players known throughout the world in chess sports, there are only a few people who have attracted attention with their extraordinary mind. Their geniuses brought many innovations and unique games to the world of sports. One of the most controversial is Bobby Fischer, the strongest chess player of all time. His IQ was 186, one of the highest in the world.

Early years

Bobby Fischer was born on a beautiful March day to an international family. In 1933, the mother of the future champion, Regina Wender, fled Germany to the Soviet Union when the Nazis came to power in her country. For some time she lived on the territory of a friendly country, where she met her future husband Gerhard Fischer. In 1938, the couple formalized the marriage and after some time left for the USA.

In the states, Bobby Fischer was born on March 9, 1943. After 2 years, his father left the family, returning to Germany. The mother independently raised the boy and his older sister Joan. It was the girl who gave the first chess to her brother, after which the whole world changed for him. Joan and Robert (Bobby Fischer) started learning the rules and playing together. Over time, the boy became strongerdive into the world of chess.

bobby fischer

At that time the family lived in Brooklyn. Every day, young Bobby spent several hours all alone, playing his favorite game with himself. This caused concern to the mother, and she decided to find a sparring partner for her son. Not knowing where to turn, she decided to place an ad in the newspaper. Brooklyn Eagle employees, not quite understanding in which section to place such a text, decided to redirect it to a specialist in chess journalism. It turned out to be Herman Helms, who responded to the ad by writing to Bobby's mother about the Brooklyn Chess Club.

The first chess club and coach

Being alone for long hours, the young chess player could not learn all the intricacies of the game. The Brooklyn Club opened up new opportunities for him. Bobby Fischer, whose biography will soon become known to everyone, begins to train with Carmine Nigro. This man at that time was the president of the club. Young Bobby spent almost all his free time in this place.

When the club was closed, the young chess player begged his mother to take him to Washington Square Park. At that time, all lovers of this game gathered there - from young to old, from different social strata. Bobby Fischer was born to play chess, this was already evident in those years. A year later, he began to study at the Horton Club, and also studied the skill several times a month and trained at a party with John Collins. At that time, many players and grandmasters came to see him. It was in the house of a reputable coach that Fischer began to read a specialgame related literature.

First victories

Studying in different clubs, Robert participated in all the competitions that were held there. His first victories can be considered the won matches of local competitions at the age of 10. He significantly stood out among his peers not only in his playing style, but also in his desire to be the best.

The news of the brilliant player began to spread throughout the small chess community in America. Bobby began to attract attention, and at the age of 13 he was invited to many tournaments. Often he participated in simultaneous sessions, where his opponents were several of the strongest participants at once. Once a similar tournament took place in Cuba, where he went with Regina Wender, his mother. Eminent grandmasters invited the young prodigy to play a game, to which Robert always agreed, because this is a chance to learn something new and comprehend the wisdom of the masters.

bobby fischer biography

At age 16, Fischer decided to leave school to devote himself entirely to studying and playing chess. He independently arranged several games with himself in parallel at home. Arranging the boards in the rooms, he alternately moved from one to another, calculating and thinking over the moves on both sides.

Tournaments

In the summer of 1956, the US junior tournament took place, in which young Bobby Fischer received his first championship and became the youngest winner of the competition. After that, a whole series of tournaments began that will lead him to the crown of the chess player, which the guy dreamed of.since childhood.

In 1958, he participates in Yugoslavia at the Interzonal Games. There he met many leading grandmasters. Fischer spends all his free time developing new strategies and practically does not leave his room. Tournament participants said that the guy looks like a simpleton, but when he sits down at the table, the game speaks for him.

bobby fischer photo

It was the Yugoslav victories that brought Robert the opportunity to participate in higher-level competitions. In 1959, the Candidates Tournament took place, in which the young prodigy faced the strongest chess players in the world. Once alone in a foreign country, he did not have an assistant, second or friend next to him. He made all decisions and actions independently. Every day in his free time, Bobby sat in his room and played chess, while his opponents had the correct regimen, took quiet walks. Fischer made many mistakes, but still finished in 5th place, which further strengthened his reputation and opened up wide prospects.

In 1961, another tournament was held in the city of Bled. The matured and well-prepared American chess player Bobby Fischer wins almost all games and takes second place on points. The same position, slightly losing to Spassky, the young child prodigy takes in 1966 at the Piatigorsky Cup, which was held in Santa Monica.

Subsequent tournaments brought Robert more and more popularity in the world of chess. He won most of the matches and took 1st or 2nd place. His playing style becamemore and more confident and strong. With such preparation and the already established capricious, quick-tempered and evil character, the genius approached the main competitions of his life. At the age of 29, he had to fight with the strongest grandmaster of the USSR.

Playing with Boris Spassky

In 1972, Bobby Fischer, the strongest chess player in the United States, had to win a fight to receive the championship title. Boris Spassky was his opponent. This game is considered the tournament of the century, it brought a lot of emotions not only to the countries of the players, but also to the whole world watching the fight. It was during the Cold War, and many associated the party of Spassky and Fischer with the confrontation between the two major powers.

The match was held in Reykjavik. Already the first minutes of the game showed that everything can be expected from the American chess player. Everything was supposed to start at 5 pm, Spassky was ready and sat waiting for the start. The game has begun, the Soviet grandmaster makes the first move and presses the chess clock. Everyone is looking forward to the second participant in the battle.

bobby fischer personal life

Moments go by and Bobby Fischer, US champion, still doesn't show up. Spassky approaches the judge, apparently to consult on further actions, and then Robert enters the hall. This situation will be discussed by all the newspapers in the world for more than one week. Already at that time, the American grandmaster attracted attention to himself and the game with his eccentric nature and unpredictable behavior. Therefore, the whole world was watching the game, moreover, this confrontation was beyond the scope of a regular match.

Fischer went to the game through a series of victories. He is longspent years preparing for this tournament, losing to Spassky in competitions at an early age. The Soviet grandmaster, on the contrary, after receiving the champion title, began to pay less attention to training and playing. Subsequently, this affected the results.

Meanwhile, the first game started. Bobby Fischer, who was about 185 cm tall, towered over the table, sitting in his own chair, which was specially brought for this tournament. Everything interfered with him: the light of lamps, and the noise of camera shutters, and the people present, regardless of their rank and purpose.

Despite this, the game went well, but at one point Fischer makes a mistake that only a beginner could make, and loses. This infuriated him, and he began to demand from the organizers that all paparazzi with their equipment be removed from the premises. Having been refused, the American grandmaster retires, refusing to continue the fight. The match was disrupted, and Spassky was automatically awarded the victory in the second game.

After 1.5 months, Bobby Fischer agreed to finish the match, but convinced the organizers to move the game to a more suitable place. It turned out to be a small room for playing table tennis. The third party and all subsequent ones went according to a different scenario. In the end, the American won. Bobby Fischer, the eleventh world champion, has been waiting for this title for a long 15 years, since defeating all US players.

There was a buzz around this match. Soviet representatives of the chess association demanded to check the air, lighting and the chair where Spassky was, motivating thisby the fact that the player was influenced by chemicals or radio waves. After a thorough examination by an international organization of all aspects of evidence for this theory, no evidence was found.

Last fight

After receiving the title of world champion, Bobby Fischer, whose biography became of interest to all novice chess players and professionals, leaves the screens and disappears for a while. In 1975, he had to appear at the game with Anatoly Karpov to confirm his title. But the grandmaster ignored this event as well.

For a long time there was no information about the great chess player. It showed what a secretive person Bobby Fischer was. His personal life is also shrouded in mystery. Sometimes you could hear that he was seen in different parts of the world.

bobby fischer height

In 1992, the world association organized a rematch between Spassky and Fischer. Big money was at stake, the prize fund was more than $3 million. This game was timed to coincide with the 20th anniversary of the duel between Spassky and Fischer, which went down in the history of world chess.

The rematch was decided to be held in Yugoslavia. But America had difficult political relations with this country at that time, and the Treasury Department threatened Fischer with sanctions. But this did not stop the grandmaster, but, on the contrary, even spurred him on. Since his retirement from big chess in 1975, he has been a constant critic of Washington politics and the entire American government.

The game went well, the opponents played 30 games, and the winner came out againBobby Fischer. Despite this, all experts unanimously insisted that the level of both players is no longer the same. But the grandmaster himself considered the match to be a championship and always said that he did not lose his crown of the winner, since he did not meet an opponent stronger than himself.

Private life

Bobby Fischer, whose personal life is shrouded in mystery, devoted all his time to the game. He was almost never seen with girls. In an interview during the 1962 Olympics, he shared some of the nuances with reporters. When asked about women, he said that he was looking for a worthy match. But he chose not to choose from American women, because, in his opinion, they are too independent and capricious. His gaze was directed at the girls from the East.

One day, when 17-year-old Fischer was participating in a tournament, his competitors sent him a woman who was able to captivate the child prodigy. The entire period of the competition, he played poorly, as he spent all his free time with a new lover. The result was that the genius player ended up in low positions in the rating table. This served as a good lesson for young Robert, and since then his only love has been playing chess.

Bobby Fischer: interesting facts

During his life, the famous chess player was able to stand out not only for his brilliant game. After he received the title of champion, his demands and whims increased significantly. For example, he started playing no earlier than 4 o'clock in the afternoon, as he liked to sleep. And before the tournament, he had to swim in the pool or play tennis on the court.

American chess player Bobby Fischeris considered not only a brilliant player, but also the most famous paranoid of the time. After receiving the title, he begins to get involved in world conspiracies and reads many books and articles about this. After some time, his harsh remarks about Jews, Americans and Africans appear in the press.

After defeating Boris Spassky in 1972, Bobby Fischer became a national hero. Many eminent companies wanted to conclude contracts with him, which were refused almost immediately. Celebrities tried to lure him to their parties and holidays. A long queue lined up to learn the game from him. But after some time, the famous champion Bobby Fischer, whose photo was printed by all publications, will be called a traitor and a deserter.

bobby fischer eleventh world champion

Robert was zealous about the game and believed that little attention was paid to chess in sports. Therefore, he demanded inflated fees for participating in the tournament, arguing that chess players should not receive less boxers or other athletes from more popular disciplines. This attitude of the eminent player brought results, and the championships began to attract more spectators and fans to the screens.

One of the developers of chess theories and the author of many articles on the game is Bobby Fischer, whose photo can be found in publications on this subject. He carefully studied the games of men's and women's tournaments and considered them from different angles, identifying the necessary criteria and steps for future victories.

One of the features of the grandmaster was the absencesense of humor, which led him to purchase 157 suits. The reason for this was that in one of the games with the opponent, Bobby Fischer asked about his handsome and elegant appearance and clarified how many suits he had. He replied that 150 pieces, but it was a joke that Robert did not understand. But the champion had to be a winner in everything, and he replenished his wardrobe with 157 suits.

Fischer stood out for his genius not only in the game of chess. He was a polyglot and could speak 5 languages. He was fond of literature and always read books in the original. In terms of money, he was always calm. It can be said that Fisher did not need them, he did not collect art objects or expensive things, he was indifferent to haute cuisine and all the delights of rich people. But despite this, he had a special price for the public, fans and journalists.

With the advent of computer technology and the Internet everywhere, many chess masters began to start tournaments in electronic spaces. In this way, they could find a worthy opponent, develop new strategies and give beginners the opportunity to learn from professionals. One day, a high-class English chess player, Nigel Short, announced that he was playing with Fischer on the Internet. Of course, the great grandmaster did not sign with his own name, but the style of the game showed that it was him.

Radical views

Bobby Fischer, whose date of birth fell on the period of the Second World War, from his youth became interested in conspiracy theories and political literature. After receiving the championship title, he repeatedly opposedAmerican government. But his dislike for Jews, communists and sexual minorities began in him back in the 60s. At this time, his mother was in the Soviet Union at a meeting with Nina Khrushcheva and regularly spoke on the radio. This infuriated Fischer and inflamed his hatred even more.

He also believed that the Jews rule everything in the world, they are in all leadership positions and in all organizations. He believed that they urgently need to be removed and clear America of unnecessary people. And this despite the fact that their blood flows in him! In his homeland, he began to be considered a traitor, a deserter. His loudest confession was the approval of terrorist actions against the United States on September 11, 2001. He said it was high time to give America a kick and that he wanted to see this country disappear from the face of the planet.

Recent years

After the game with Boris Spassky, Fischer had to hide from justice. The reason for this is the US government's ban on the participation of the great chess player in the tournament in this country. At that time, sanctions were imposed against Yugoslavia due to the war in the Balkans. But Fischer didn't give a damn about it, but he couldn't return to his homeland either, because he was waiting for a trial and 10 years in prison.

After winning the anniversary tournament, he took his fee and left for Switzerland. After a short stay in this country, he moved to Hungary. The US Federal Bureau issued an arrest warrant for the grandmaster. This led to Fisher going into hiding, first in the Philippines, then in Japan, and periodically moving from place to place.

Since the grandmaster could not return to America, he decided to seek refuge in his parents' homeland. Bobby Fischer, the chess player who was featured in the world's most famous publications, now needed a new home. He applies for German citizenship but is denied. In the middle of summer 2004, he is arrested at a Japanese airport while trying to leave the country. The United States, under an extradition treaty, demands the extradition of Fischer.

Meanwhile, the former champion's lawyers recommend applying for citizenship in Iceland, where his unforgettable and victorious tournament took place. In the spring of 2005, the decision was made. Robert Fischer officially becomes a citizen of this country, receives a passport and leaves Japan for his new homeland.

Bobby Fischer March 9, 1943

The last years of the great grandmaster take place in Reykjavik. In 2007, Fisher was admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of liver failure. The treatment did not help, and in January 2008 the great and extraordinary player of all time passed away. He brought a lot of innovations to the game and brought it to a new level.

For many years before his death, Bobby Fischer lived in complete solitude and received roy alties from his books, in which he described his matches and taught the art of chess. A few friends periodically visited and supported him.

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