Stone carving: training, tools and technologies
Stone carving: training, tools and technologies
Anonim

For a long time, the cherished dream of man is the conquest of stone. An example is the Egyptian pyramids. But even now the demand for natural material is great. The stone is a raw material for various industries, such as jewelry or construction, because it has incredible strength and amazing beauty. But this is not the limit of its use. There is such an art form as stone carving. This craft originated a very long time ago, but does not lose its relevance today. This will be discussed in this article.

Tools

To perform stone carving, you need to have a set of tools that is called "classic". But this does not mean that every master has the same. The presence of only a few tools in the set is a must for work - this has remained unchanged since the ancient masters first mastered this art form.

stone carving

sledgehammer

Tool with a long handle (one meter) and a massive hammer. It is heavy, its weight reaches four to six kilograms. Due to the large swing, the impact force is greatly increased.

Jackhammer

Its main difference from the usual instrument of this type is its large weight, as much as three kilograms. Due to this, the blows become more powerful, which is why the stone can be processed faster. A jackhammer is used when it is necessary to cut a stone. One side of the tip is blunt, the other side is sharp.

Pickax

This stone carving tool is still in use today. Going down into the mines or quarries, the workers take it with them. The tip of the pick has two ends: one is blunt, the other is sharp, with one or two teeth. This tool has great destructive power. For this reason, it is considered the main tool of a bricklayer.

Mason's Hammer

This tool has one blunt head, it differs from a sledgehammer in a more compact size. Its purpose is to cut small stones or small parts.

stone carving tool

Kyanka

The tool is used when you need to lay a stone somewhere - in the ground, for example. It has a special striker, for the manufacture of which an elastic material is used, such as leather, rubber, wood.

Chisel

Inventory has a small size, easily fits in the hand of the master. It is used to perform work that is highly decorative, when you need to perform accurateadjusting the elements of the composition. To give the stone a faceted shape, different chisels are used: wide, sharp or blunt.

Wedges

They are metal bushings. They are used when a stone block needs to be split into many smaller pieces. To do this, holes are made in the stone, bushings are inserted into them. The master takes a sledgehammer or a hammer and hits them one by one.

Scribe

This tool is used to make drawings on stone. It has a tip made of hard material, thanks to which the master performs hard work during stone carving.

Stone carving training

Skarpel

Decorative tool, looks like a pencil. They are engraved on the stone. Scarpel tips have teeth with different thicknesses, from two to two and a half millimeters.

Cutters

They are used to carve stone, which is considered precious, to give it the desired shape. With the help of cutters, unnecessary elements are removed from the stone. These tools are manual, mechanical, polishing, grinding.

Files

These are hand tools, they are used when you need to process soft rock. They are of two types: straight and curved. The files are supplemented with other devices: handles, cords, knitting needles, pins.

Grater

This tool is called a brush or sponge and is used when the master's work is nearing completion. The grater is designed for grinding or polishing stone. However, the degree of impact may varydepending on how grit the tool has.

Artistic stone carving

Artistic carving

This is the most noble, but also the most difficult art of stone carving. In fact, these are the very graceful forms of stone that are so difficult for beginners in this business. Using artistic stone carving, craftsmen create real masterpieces.

Products made from such stones as marble and granite are especially popular. But for artistic carving, different types of stones are used, the hardness of which varies. Tools for work are more diverse than with conventional carving. Stone carvers most often use the following materials.

  • White-pink, bluish anhydride. It is also called "heavenly stone" or "Nizhny Novgorod marble".
  • Single-crystal gypsum, the surface of which is shiny and smooth, cast like mother-of-pearl. It is called "Maria's glass" because in the distant past, stone replaced glass for people.
  • Selenite - this stone is called "lunar". It has a fibrous structure and an incomparable brilliance, reminiscent of a silk surface. Stone-formed veins in fine-grained gypsum and clay look stunningly beautiful.
  • Stearite - it is called "black stone". Craftsmen use it when they need to create eyes or noses for animals.
  • Alabaster natural with pale yellow and pinkish hues. It is characterized by soft transparency and graceful patterns, made up of spots and bizarre streaks.
Mastersstone carvings

The embodiment of the idea in the work

Working with stone, the master becomes a creator. A shapeless solid block is given a new form. The stone is given a new life in a work of art created by the artist. This is on the one hand. And on the other hand, it is important for the master to fulfill the main task, which is to reveal the beauty and peculiarity of minerals created by nature, and then demonstrate it to people. Looking at the creation of human hands, many want to master this type of art. Learning to carve stone requires a lot of perseverance, patience and time. But if you follow the recommendations of the master, everything will work out. Of course, there will be failures, but there is no need to be upset, work should be continued, and knowledge and qualifications will come with experience.

  • First, the idea is formed. To do this, a sketch is drawn on paper, all the details of the future composition are thought out, and the image is worked out. The creative search for a master should not be considered a waste of time. After all, it is at this stage that the artist endows the future masterpiece with feelings, emotions.
  • According to the sketch, a conceived image is created from a soft material (plasticine, for example), taking into account the natural anatomy. Then the finished prototype is cast in plasticite, which replaces the plaster.
  • The next step is to choose the stone from which the sculpture will be created, as well as materials for decoration. Here it is important to take into account their "neighborhood" to each other.
  • The stone blank is given its primary shape. For this, a large saw is used. After the sketch has been made,elaboration of details, in accordance with the previously completed model. Small saws are used. The main tool is diamond discs. It is important that water is supplied to the machine - this way every movement will be visible. There is no need to hurry. Small, shallow movements are used to process the stone. This is necessary so that the master can feel the slightest changes in the structure of the stone. The work requires a lot of concentration, distractions are not allowed.
Stone carving machines
  • The next step, the stone cutter outlines the details necessary for the sculpture: facial features, folds of clothing, muscles, and so on. This stage of work is considered the most painstaking, here you need the utmost care. There is such a stone carving machine - a drill, which includes diamond drills with different calibers. She takes care of every detail. But before the eyes of the master there should be a layout in order to constantly compare the figurine made of stone with the idea.
  • The penultimate stage is the polishing of the sculpture with paste and a machine tool. Every detail is brought to a mirror finish. As a result of this operation, the pattern and color of the stone is visible.
  • The final stage of work on the creation of a work of art is the assembly of all processed elements into a single composition. They are connected by inconspicuous seams, pins, strong gluing. There are many secrets here too. Over time, the beginner will master them too, because the result of complex and time-consuming work largely depends on this final step.

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