Table of contents:
- Garry Kasparov: biography and first successes
- Achieving the title of champion
- Paul Morphy's early years
- Achieving the title of champion
- The most scandalous chess player in history: Bobby Fischer
- Unusual abilities shown in childhood
- The most famous duel
- Bobby Fischer's Strange Desires
- The best chess players in the world. Who can they lose to?
- And howabout a duel with the computer?
In the past two centuries, the history of the game of chess has given the world a huge number of great names. But among them, one can still single out those who can be called the greatest geniuses. There are three of the greatest chess players in total. This is Garry Kasparov, Bobby Fischer, Paul Morphy.
Garry Kasparov: biography and first successes
Garry Kasparov is the greatest genius of chess. As the thirteenth world champion, he left his career in its prime. But until now, the best chess players in the world imitate the ideal of his game.
Kasparov was born into an educated family in Baku in 1963. His parents, both father and mother, were engineers. No one knows exactly at what age Harry first showed interest in chess. Only one case is reliable - when the boy was five years old, he suggested to his father the solution of the study, which was published in the newspaper. Paying attention to the abilities of their child, the parents decided to send him to the chess section.
Achieving the title of champion
During the first year of study, Harry has already become the owner of the first category in chess. At the same time, Harry is sent as a member of the national teamAzerbaijan to Vilnius. There, the future best chess player in the world meets his future coach, mentor and friend Alexander Nikitin. On the advice of Nikitin, Kasparov begins his studies at the correspondence chess school of Botvinnik and very soon becomes an assistant to the chess patriarch.
In 1974, thanks to the efforts of his mother, Harry gets a new surname (his birth name was Weinstein), and even a nationality. In 1975, Kasparov took the lead in the Soviet Youth Chess Championship. In 1980, he received the title of grandmaster for the first time. In 1984, the great confrontation between the two giants of the chess game begins - Garry Kasparov and Anatoly Karpov. The fight for the championship ended in 1985 with Kasparov being awarded the title of 13th chess champion.
Paul Morphy's early years
The ranking of the world's best chess players always includes the fourth champion, Paul Morphy. He was born in New Orleans, in a fairly we althy family. From an early age, his memory surprised many adults. For example, lawyers entering the house were amazed that young Paul knew by heart all the laws of the Louisiana civil code. His uncle was considered one of the most serious chess players in the city. No one taught the child the rules of the game - he mastered this art on his own. Already at the age of 10, Paul Morphy became one of the best in New Orleans.
Achieving the title of champion
Paul Morphy's chess career began at the Internationalchess tournament in London. At the age of 20, he became the best chess player in America, beating all his opponents. Out of a hundred games, he lost only 5 - and of those whom he defeated were the best chess players in the world. In the entire history of chess, there has never been a grandmaster like Morphy in terms of playing style. He was quick, thoughtful and aggressive.
The most scandalous chess player in history: Bobby Fischer
The eleventh world chess champion is American Bobby Fischer. He was born in Chicago in 1943. The mother of the future chess player was a Jewess who lived in Switzerland. Father is a German biologist who moved from the Soviet Union to Chile.
Bobby Fischer, in addition to his championship, is also known for unusual statements. For example, even as a teenager, he argued that the school is an absolutely meaningless place and women should not work there because of their stupidity. In general, despite the fact that Fischer and other best chess players in the world are on the same list, this genius is considered both one of the most adored and most despised.
Unusual abilities shown in childhood
Played Fischer chess from the age of six. The child was so carried away by the game of chess that he stopped communicating with children of his age, arguing that among them he could not find a worthy partner for the game. At first, the mother decided to turn to a psychiatrist, but he reassured the woman, saying that chess is a good hobby and there is nothing dangerous in the child's behavior.The mother began looking for a playmate for the boy through newspaper advertisements, but she could not find anyone. Bobby Fischer later referred to chess as his “second self.”
The most famous duel
In 1972, the most famous Fischer tournament took place - with the Soviet chess player Boris Spassky. The competition was held in Reykjavik. There Fischer won 21 victories and received the title of champion. However, in the future, Fischer, for some reason, rejected the offer to compete with Anatoly Karpov, and after that he led a reclusive lifestyle for twenty years.
Bobby Fischer's Strange Desires
Repeatedly he spoke negatively about different countries: about Russia, then about Iceland, then about the USA. Fisher was on a short footing with representatives of various marginal groups - for example, with preachers of various sects, as well as with mafiosi. Fisher also tried to leave behind offspring that would have identical genes with him - in order to inherit his gift.
The best chess players in the world. Who can they lose to?
This is how the fate of some of the most prominent chess geniuses developed. However, this is far from a complete list. The top 10 chess players in the world today are Carlsen Magnus, Vladimir Kramnik, Aronian Levon, Teimour Radjabov and others. To calculate the strength of a chess player, the so-called Elo rating system is used. It was developed by the American scientist Arpad Elo. Until 1989, the first line of this rating was occupied by Bobby Fischer, after - Garry Kasparov.
And howabout a duel with the computer?
Interestingly, even the world's best chess players in history can now be beaten by a computer. The first such duel took place in 1996, when Garry Kasparov lost to the Deep Blue supercomputer, which could evaluate about 200 million positions in one second. However, already in the second game, Kasparov took revenge on the computer. And then, after two draws, he won the next two.