- A brief history of coins
- Features of Oriental coins
- Old coinage of Asia
- Rare US coins
- Originality of Tsarist Russia coins
- Modern coins
- Top 5 expensive and rare coins in the world
- Expensive coins of Russia and the USSR
- The most expensive coin in the world
- Advice for novice numismatists
Gold has always been associated with we alth and luxury. Money made from precious metals was especially valued. Expensive coins were made of precious gold, silver and copper. Metal alloys were also used - bronze, brass, bilon. Today, for greater strength of banknotes, some part of copper is mixed in. An impurity is called a ligature, and the percentage of a precious metal is a breakdown.
A brief history of coins
As legend has it, the first coins were introduced into use by the ancient Chinese in the 12th century BC. However, such money was used within the country. And only in 500 BC. The Persian king Darius introduced coins into use, replacing them with barter. Money quickly gained popularity due to its compactness and versatility.
Soon, each civilization began to issue its own coins. They are of historical, economic and cultural value to this day. The first money was at the same time units of weight. This is the reason why the main weight units are called the first coins.
In antiquity, money was minted from a special alloy of gold and silver - electrum.
In ancient Rome, primitive coin workshops were located near the temple of Juno. It was believed that metal money was not only an item of exchange, but also a talisman against misfortunes.
In the Middle Ages, ancient Roman silver coins were used for the first time. But at the end of the 6th and beginning of the 7th they began to issue metal money with early Christian symbols. In the Middle Ages, there was a monometallic coinage system, in which only one type of noble metal was used to create a coin. Polymetallic and bimetallic coinage (an alloy of silver, gold and copper) are also known.
In the Middle Ages, there were many mints. Every self-respecting feudal lord wanted his own chased workshop at his allotment. This led to the depreciation of the currency and the cessation of the production of coins.
In the Renaissance, coinage also revived. Now the art of coinage was entrusted to well-known masters, many of whom were guided by the traditions of antiquity. At the same time, money was cast with the image of religious scenes on the obverse.
In Kievan Rus, metal money was cast for the princes by masters from Byzantium.
Each era is distinguished by its coins. The rarest and most expensive coins can be both rare and modern. It all depends on the composition, purpose and number of copies of the money.
Features of Oriental coins
The first finds of ancient money in this region date back to the III century BC. On creationThe coins of the East were influenced by the tradition of ancient Greek coinage. The face of the reigning monarch was usually cast on the obverse, and the reverse was decorated with the image of plants and animals. So, the coins of Ancient Judea of the middle of the second century AD are associated with the royal dynasty of the Hasmoneans and Herodiades. The coinage of the Kushan kingdom (modern India, Pakistan and Afghanistan) is characterized by the drawing of figures not only of monarchs, but also of the supreme gods of Egypt, Iran, India.
The manner of casting the coins of Ancient Georgia, elements of which have survived to this day, is also distinguished by an original approach. The most interesting specimens are considered to be money from the beginning to the middle of the 19th century. The obverse was decorated with the city's crown, while the reverse was decorated with crossed olive and palm branches.
Due to their beauty, Georgian coins are in great demand among numismatists. If we determine the value of old money today, then the price of the most expensive coin of the East depends on its year of issue, purpose and uniqueness.
Old coinage of Asia
One of the most expensive old coins is the money of Ancient Asia (modern Vietnam, Burma, Afghanistan, India and others). Some vintage pieces have a hole in the center for wearing around the neck. The shape of money can be different - round, oval, square, polygonal. The design of the coins amazes with the artistic invention of the masters. All these features attracted the attention of the ancient colonizers, and modern collectors.
Despite the influence of the Old World, the coins of Asiaretained their original origin. The identity of many nationalities was displayed in banknotes. Hence, the main characteristic of the coins is a large number of artistic elements. The symbols of the monarchy (throne, crown) are intertwined with mythical subjects. Often there are images of sacred animals and plants. The coins of the colonial countries (India) contained portraits of English kings. Expensive commemorative coins were also valuable.
Rare US coins
Like all countries, the United States of America also issued its own currency. Rare expensive coins - gold dollars and cents.
One of the most expensive US banknotes is the gold Saint-Gaudens Double Eagle, issued in 1933. 12 $20 coins were "lost" during the government's confiscation of the gold fund of the population and organizations. The rarity appeared in 1992 and was confiscated by the United States Secret Service.
Draped Bust Dollars, issued in 1804, are considered by collectors to be among the rarest. Each of the eight unique coins is worth over $1 million today.
The Brasher Doubloon is also considered valuable - the state coinage of 1789. At first it was supposed to issue coppers, but the jeweler Ephraim Brasher considered this metal not worthy of his labors. As a result, Brasher Doubloons are golden. Today, numismatists are fighting for the opportunity to own one of the remaining seven coins.
The shortage of precious metals in 1861 led to the issuance of paper notes. Several gold Confederate States Half-Dollars are notenjoyed particular success until, after the Civil War, they appeared in private collections. Today, the dollar is considered one of the most valuable coins.
The rarest US coin is the 1974 aluminum penny. The coin was made as a result of the rising cost of copper. Aluminum was considered a profitable substitute for the precious metal. However, after the experimental minting of a copy of the penny, it was no longer issued.
In 1913, a five-cent coin was made. Five Liberty Head Nickels ended up in the hands of one owner who made $4,150,000 by selling cents at a dealer company auction.
In the 1870s, a new mint was established in San Francisco. In honor of this significant event, three coins were issued, which were destined to become the most desirable for future collectors. An 1870s Half-Dime, an 1870s Silver Dollar, and an 1870s $3 Gold Coin were originally intended to lay the groundwork for the future building.
The 1866 silver dollar belonged to the Du Pont family. In 1867, he was kidnapped by robbers and returned relatively recently.
The first real US currency issued by the new Congress of States after the signing of the Declaration of Independence in 1776. Benjamin Franklin himself took part in the development of the design of the Silver Continental Dollar coin. The result is a rather strange set of chased slogans, thirteen linked rings, which symbolized the American colonies and unprecedented popularity among numismatists.
In the 90s XIXcentury, another coveted copy was made - 10 cents Dime Barber. The rarest is also considered one of the most expensive coins in the world. From 1892 to 1916, only 24 copies were minted, of which only 9 have survived to this day. The last coin of the batch was sold for $1.9 million in 2007.
Originality of Tsarist Russia coins
Mints were famous for producing unique items. At the court of Catherine II, a number of monetary reforms were carried out, as a result of which copper, silver and gold coins began to be minted. Copper coinage was carried out in limited quantities. As a result, the expensive coins of Tsarist Russia are coppers with a face value of 1, 2 and 5 kopecks.
Silver coins of that time are also of high value. Especially rare are fifty kopecks and rubles. However, they were surpassed in value by coins of 20 kopecks.
Gold 5 and 10 rubles from the time of Catherine the Great at auctions cost from 500,000 to 750,000 rubles.
The reign of Paul I brought some changes to traditional coinage. The design of metal money has changed significantly. The most valuable coppers of that time are the money of 1801 and the kopeck of 1798. All silver and gold gold pieces made in 1797 are also very expensive.
Expensive coins of Russia were also issued during the reign of Alexander I (for example, 10 gold rubles, minted in 1802) and Nicholas I (gold coins with a face value of 6 rubles). The times of Alexander II are significant by the abolition of serfdom in 1861, which led tosome kind of economic depression. As a result, even a copper coin of low denomination was of great value. Today, 1/4 and 1/2 kopeck coins are considered expensive and rare. But the most valuable are the nickels made from 1855 to 1858. It is noteworthy that all copies are made of copper.
Monetary reforms during the reign of Nicholas II concerned mainly the strengthening of the ruble by defining the gold standard. The coin design remained unchanged. The rarest coins are those that appeared at the beginning and at the end of the emperor's reign. These are 10 silver kopecks of 1895-97 and 1917, 15 kopecks of 1896 and 1917, 20 kopecks of 1917.
Commemorative coins of that time also have considerable value. For example, 1 ruble, issued in 1896 in honor of the coronation of the emperor, a banknote of 1898, timed to coincide with the opening of the monument to Alexander II, a gold ruble of 1912, minted in honor of the centenary of the Patriotic War of 1812, a commemorative coin dedicated to the 300th anniversary of the reign of the Romanov dynasty.
The debut silver ruble of the Soviet Union was minted from high-grade metal in 1921 and 1922. However, money came into use only in 1924. The obverse of the coin was decorated with a five-pointed star, the State Emblem of the Russian Federation and the slogan “Proletarians of all countries, unite!”
Also, in 1923, a gold ducat was minted. The reverse depicted a peasant with a basket in front of a factory.
Today, expensive commemorative coins, the release of whichtimed to coincide with various significant dates in the USSR and Russia. A banknote dedicated to the centenary of the birth of V.I. Lenin, the 20th and 30th anniversary of the Victory in the Great Patriotic War, the 50th, 60th and 70th anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution is considered rare.
Top 5 expensive and rare coins in the world
Which coins are valued dearly determines their circulation and the uniqueness of the stamp. The less money of one denomination was minted, the higher the cost of each copy will be. Coins associated with some historical fact are especially expensive.
1 ruble of 1825, called Konstantinovsky, is a refined silver coin with the image of the profile of Tsarevich Konstantin Pavlovich. A copy was once sold at a numismatic auction for $100,000.
1 kopeck of 1535, issued as a result of the reform of Elena Glinskaya, mother of Ivan the Terrible. The uniqueness of the coin lies in the fact that it is the first minted kopeck in Russia. The price of a copy can reach 1000 rubles.
1813 Liberty Head V nickel. The number of rarities does not exceed five copies. The cost of one coin is 4,150,000 dollars. The price of the most expensive coin justifies the expectations of numismatists.
Golden Maple Leaf by Stan Witten is a 1979 coin issued in Canada. Copies are known in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and even 1,000,000 Canadian dollars. Each coin sold for 2.2 million euros.
ONE PENNY is an Australian coin issued in 1930. Only 6 of such money were issued, and today each of the copies is desiredsubject of private collections. Many numismatists are willing to shell out about $117,000 for a rarity.
Expensive coins of Russia and the USSR
In addition to all of the above, we can also recall the most valuable metal money in Russia throughout all historical eras.
- Perhaps the most unique coin is the square copy of the Empire, issued in 1726. The coin was minted in Yekaterinburg after the death of Peter I. During the difficult economic situation, Ural copper was considered the cheapest. Square kopecks became rare money after the order of Empress Catherine the Great to withdraw them from use and melt them down.
- Another valuable coin from the point of view of numismatists is the ruble "Anna with a chain". The obverse of the copy is decorated with the profile of the ruling Empress Anna Ioannovna, and the reverse is decorated with the chain of the Order of St. Andrew the First-Called. Today, only three coins have been found, which significantly increases their value.
History also determines which coins of the USSR are expensive. Among such copies, one can single out money in denominations of 20 kopecks (1934), 10 and 15 kopecks (1042 years), 2, 3 and 5 rubles of 1958 issue
The most expensive coin in the world
Especially valuable specimen is the oldest silver dollar Flowing Hair, issued in 1794. In 2010, the coin was sold for $7.85 million. "Loose hair" was named after the curls of Lady Liberty, depicted on the obverse of metallic money. The reverse of the coin is adorned with the inscription "United StatesAmerica" and an eagle with an olive branch.
Advice for novice numismatists
A collector who decides to collect old coins should, first of all, decide on the main direction of the private collection. There are several basic principles of numismatics:
- Collecting coins of a certain era.
- Anniversary copies.
- Associated with rulers of states.
- Collecting coins of a certain denomination (the smallest or the largest).
- Copies with special markings (for example, a minting error).
- Collecting according to the era.
The cost of expensive coins is determined by an experienced numismatist. The price of a metal copy can be found, given the following facts:
- Demand and number of issued coins.
- Cost according to catalogue.
- Safety level.
- Degree of wear.
- Presence or lack of proper cleaning of the coin.
- Marriage or its absence on coinage.
- Unique characteristics of the instance.
Coin appraisal can only be carried out by numismatists. However, some antique dealers are able to somewhat underestimate the price of a copy in order to buy it cheaper. As a result, it is recommended to collect several independent opinions before listing the coin for sale.
Furthermore, it is necessary to turn to the well-known auctions of the country or the world, which keep their crystal clear reputation. When selling a rarity, the officialexpert opinion signed and stamped.