- Role of knots in culture and religion
- Where knots are used
- Types of loops and connections
- "Practical" and decorative
- Classification of knots, types
- Three main sea knots
- Basic knots in mountaineering
- Main knots in caving
Knots in the history of mankind appeared very early - the oldest known ones were found in Finland and date back to the Late Stone Age. With the development of civilization, knitting methods also developed: from simple to complex, with a division into types, types and areas of use. The category with the largest number of variations is sea knots.
Role of knots in culture and religion
There were peoples whose methods of tying ropes were endowed with mystical properties, used in the lives of representatives of all walks of life. There were also civilizations in which taboos were imposed on them. The most famous example of the latter is Ancient Rome: priests in the temple of Jupiter were forbidden to have at least one knot in their clothes.
Many peoples of the world had cult, sacred knots: the Chinese "knot of happiness", the emblem of the tribe of Judah in Judaism, tying a lock of hair and tying a knot in the beard of the Arabs and others.
Knitting was given a big impetus by the development of sailing navigation - the need for reliable and convenient "tools" created a whole collection of new knots. Another big shift occurred in the 19th and 20th centuries with the development of tourism.
By that time, sailing had become a hobby, and nautical knots simply fell into disuse - now only about 38 knots are studied in nautical schools. Meanwhile, in Ashley's Book of Knots, published in 1944, 700 ways of tying ropes are described, and the maximum known number reaches 4000. However, when tourists appeared, everything changed.
The development of specific types of recreation (mountaineering, caving, sport fishing) brought to life forgotten and "created" new types of links.
Knotting has become a kind of sport - one of the records in it was registered in the Guinness Book of Records in 1977, certifying that the American Clinton R. Bailey Sr. tied six knots in 6.1 seconds.
Where knots are used
The scope of their application includes all aspects of human life. Knots literally accompany us everywhere - they are used to tie bows on shoes, hats, ties, bandage wounds, keep animals on a leash and hair in a hairstyle. Nautical knots are still in use in sailing.
In mountain, water sports, caving and mountaineering, knots are found at every turn. They are also part of fishing, hunting, creatingdecorative ornaments and clothing. At the same time, each type of activity requires its own kind of nodes.
Types of loops and connections
Knitting knots strictly obeys the laws of topology - at the heart of any most complex knot is a simple knot. From here the first classification emerges - there are simple (basic) and complex ligaments.
Any knot can be divided into a combination of two elements - creating curved forms of the rope (building) and forming additional curves in the process of tightening (forming).
Squeezing leads to compression, deformation of the rope at the point of contact. As a result, a rope with a knot is less tear-resistant than without it. This leads to yet another way to classify - according to the degree of reliability.
"Practical" and decorative
One more general classification can be distinguished - the division into types of nodes according to functionality. In other words, knots are divided into those used for some kind of work and decorative.
The latter are great for decorating gifts, bouquets, dressing up clothes, creating jewelry. Among them, mizuhiki occupy a special place: with their help, you can create works of art of any form and purpose - from decorations in the form of butterflies and cranes, to rich loops and ornaments on clothes.
There are other classifications - depending on what is associated with what, on the purpose, etc.
Classification of knots, types
In general, the following types of nodes are distinguished:
- for tying ropes together;
- for tying a rope to a support;
- auxiliary (for creating support, weighting, holding loops of rope bays, etc.);
The first, in turn, can be divided into: knots for tying ropes of the same diameter, different diameters, running (for movable fastening parts of the same rope with each other), conductor and special.
However, the answer to the question of what kind of nodes are, is not limited to this. There are special knots in mountaineering and fishing, among decorative ones there is also a huge variety of connections.
Three main sea knots
In fact, there are many "marine" knots, the types of which were needed and popular in the days of sailboats, but have lost their relevance in our time. A fair amount of bundles are no longer used, but there are three basic ones that are used almost always and everywhere. These are "gazebo", "bleached" and "eight".
The "arbor" knot, also known as the bowline, or the "king of knots" - does not tighten even under strong tension, easily knits, compact, does not slip, does not damage the cable, does not tighten itself and is easily untied. This is a real king, possessing all the necessary positive qualities and having practically no drawbacks. This knot is used as a belay when ascending or descending overboard, and is also suitable for joining two ropes of the same or different diameters and materials.
The “bleached” knot is very convenient for attaching a rope tosmooth surfaces, such as a mast or yard. It belongs to the type of nodes, the types of which can be used safely, without fear of problems with slipping or self-untying. It got its name due to the fact that for a long time they have been attached to the shrouds of the shrouds (pieces of tarred cable that served to climb the masts). This knot has a drawback - it is reliable only with constant tension. In the marine business, it is used for fenders, tying boats to a pile.
"Eight" - a locking knot that underlies one and a half dozen more complex options. It is considered a classic, and its big plus is that even with a strong pull it does not spoil the rope and is easily untied. In everyday life, it is a good way to attach a rope handle to a bucket, to children's sleds, strings to pegs of violins, mandolins, guitars and the like.
In addition, the types of marine knots can be divided into auxiliary ones, connecting the ropes to each other and attaching the cable to the support.
Basic knots in mountaineering
Mountain sports use similar types of knitting. Although some of them originated from the sea and have been known for many years, there are also “their own”, developed and invented by tourists and professional athletes. In mountaineering, 17 basic knittings can be distinguished:
- Straight (for connecting cables and ropes of the same size. Be sure to use control knots. Under load, it tightens strongly, “creeps”).
- Grapevine (from the category of knots, the types of which are used to tie ropes of the same and differentdiameter).
- Bramshkotovy (used to tie cables of different diameters. Be sure to knit control knots to it).
- Figure-eight conductor (a tied knot does not “creep” and does not tighten much under load. Used where a reliable loop is needed).
- "Rabbit ears" (the scope is everywhere where a good strong loop is needed. Does not "creep", tightens strongly under load).
- Bowline (it is used to attach the rope in rings, fixing around the support. This is a good, simple and reliable knot that does not tighten much under load, but “creeps” if the load is variable).
- Gard Loop (used for belaying, pulling the rope and braking. Works well with a loaded line, suitable for use in any condition).
- Prusik knot (used for self-insurance. It does not hold on icy cables at all and poorly on hard ones. This knot moves freely and tightens when loaded, after it is removed it returns to its original state without difficulty).
- Bleached ("Stirrup". Well suited for attaching a rope to any number of supports, such as trees. It does not tighten under load and is quite reliable at a constant level).
- Austrian grappling knot (for pulling the cable when organizing the crossing. Moves freely, tightens under the load and returns to its original position after it is removed. One of the mosttrusted nodes. Types of such sliding-grasping ligaments are very popular among both sailors and cavers).
- Self-Untying (This knot is knitted from a piece of the main rope and is used when setting up a crossing. It is well untied even under heavy load and is quite reliable. A reef knot or carabiner is used to prevent spontaneous untying).
- Rope marking (very easy and convenient way to keep the rope in order. Fits on any skein of rope, ribbons, fishing line, etc.).
- Blocking ISS (the method and procedure for tying insurance. There are several options).
- Control - sliding, deaf, carbine (the main knots in any area related to the use of ropes. Only those who do not knit the knots that need them can do without control. Their task is to prevent the spontaneous untying of the main knot. With some knots it is mandatory to use control ropes.In general, they are used when there is doubt about the reliability of the main one, especially if it is tied to a wet, slippery, icy, dirty, etc. rope).
Main knots in caving
Types of rope knots used by cavers are very similar to "climbing", although depending on the team and school, different knitting methods can be called the main ones. However, it would not be a mistake to name the following among the basic ones, absolutely necessary for studying by everyone who wants to go in for caving: straight, bowline, "eight" (stop, double and counter), nine, Austrian guide.
Of them alldouble "eight" - almost the most used in caving life. If formed correctly, it is well untied after loading. Used on the hitch and in many other applications.
The straight knot, also known as Heracles, is two half-knots tied in sequence one above the other in opposite directions. This method of connection is only suitable for ropes of the same diameter - otherwise, a thin one will tear a thick one under load. When the rope or rope is loaded, this loop is prone to self-loosening.
The same is true if the rope gets wet - the knot can creep. Must be used in conjunction with controls. Unreliable on synthetic ropes, but with proper use it is versatile and relatively easy to untie.
Similar, but unreliable options are known: mother-in-law and a woman's knot. Admir alty and surgical knots are also considered related to the direct one.
One of the simplest stop knots, which has several undeniable advantages: it is easy to knit, it looks beautiful, it tightens itself, it does not spoil the rope too much. It is not suitable for use under load, as in this case it is strongly tightened and, as a result, it is difficult to untie it.
The figure-eight, like the straight knot, has been known since antiquity. There is a similar loop with the same name, which is used in mountaineering mainly to secure the carabiner to the main rope.
What are the nodes onbasis of the G8? In general, it serves as an element of many more complex knits, for example, oncoming and double "eight".