- Training Workshop
- Polenova's Guide
- The origins of the fishery
- Cooperation with Sergius artisans
- Carving features
- Poetic composition
- Thread tinting
- Carving steps
- Steps of cutting a relief pattern
- Fishing today
Abramtsevo-Kudrinskaya woodcarving is an art craft that originated in the vicinity of the Abramtsevo estate in the Moscow region at the end of the 19th century. It owes its appearance to a circle of village artists, organized by Elena Dmitrievna Polenova on the estate of Savva Ivanovich Mamontov. He was a well-known philanthropist in Russia, who helped to preserve and develop the folk crafts of his region. On the basis of this circle, in 1882, a carpentry workshop was opened, which gave rise to the labor activity of many craftsmen from the nearest villages - Kudrino, Khotkovo, Akhtyrka and Mutovka.
In the article we will consider the history, technology of the Abramtsevo-Kudrinskaya carving, who organized the production and future fishing. Let's acquaint the reader with the features of the style of work, where flat-relief and geometric carving are successfully combined. Rhythmic floral ornament can be seen on household items of that time. These are ladles and s alt shakers, decorative boxes and vases, large plates andbochata.
In addition to the beautiful carving, the items made by the hands of masters are distinguished by tinting, which are designed to emphasize the natural beauty of wood. The patterns cover the entire surface of the craft completely, connecting large parts with curls, twigs and other plant elements.
Savva Mamontov's wife organized a literacy school in the estate for village children from the surrounding villages and villages. In addition to the lessons of the school curriculum, it was decided to teach children the skills of woodcarvers so that after graduation they could earn a living by their own labor. Thus, a workshop appeared, where carpentry and carving were taught. Many children happily went there to study. Education was completely free for three years.
The students were taught the basics of drawing and painting, in every possible way they contributed to the creative approach of the guys to work. Classes were held on the territory of the estate museum, in which handicrafts were collected. Students had the opportunity to get acquainted with the exhibits of a huge collection. After graduating, they were given gifts of a workbench and woodcarving tools so they could get started on their own at home.
In 1885, the workshop was headed by the artist E. D. Polenova, who had a huge impact on the development of Abramtsevo-Kudrinskaya carving. It was according to her sketches that the craftsmen made carved furniture - shelves and cabinets, chairs and chests of drawers, tables and armchairs, which at the end of the 19th centurysold out in Moscow stores, first at the Handicraft Museum near the Nikitsky Gates, and then at Petrovka.
Although now many researchers criticize her style of carving, calling it formal and heavy, but this is what gives the products brightness and originality. However, everyone agrees that Elena Dmitrievna undoubtedly made a huge contribution to the development of the fishery. Masters embodied more than 100 of her projects in their works, which drew attention to things with artistic carving and popularized this craft in its time.
In the products made at that time in Abramtsevo, flat carving with trihedral notches prevailed. In places of thickening, the craftsmen carved ribbon geometric patterns, and the panels on pieces of furniture were filled with floral ornaments. All items were stained in a dark color. The furniture looked very original and caused extraordinary demand among buyers. In addition, during this period, society had an interest in everything folk and national.
The origins of the fishery
One of the talented and enterprising students of the workshop in Abramtsevo was the future founder of the production, which became the basis for the craft of Kudrinskaya carving. It was a resident of the village of Kudrino, which was located 4 km from the school, the son of a simple peasant, Vasily Petrovich Vornoskov. As an eleven-year-old boy, he went to study reading and writing at Mamontova's school. Just at that time, a carpentry workshop was opened, where Vasily decided to enroll. The boy studied hard, besides, he had organizational skills,which helped him, after graduation, create a production that glorified him for many years.
The boy and his friends stayed in the museum for a long time, looking at samples of works by other masters, studying drawings and sketches of artists. Vasily tried not only to accurately carry out the work according to these sketches, but also to invent drawings and patterns on his own. The teachers encouraged the boy's creative impulses in every possible way.
After graduating in 1890, V. P. Vornoskov opened a small workshop in his native Kudrino, but he still carried out orders from the Abramtsevo workshop. Over time, Vasily Petrovich developed his own style, based on a low and soft relief with rounded edges. Mostly, the objects were depicted with a lace ornament made of branches and leaves; for carving, the master used more than 20 different chisels. This style was called in honor of the master Vornoskovskaya carving. The second name comes from the name of the village where the master worked. This is Kudrinka carving, or in the common people "kudrinka", which immediately gained great popularity throughout the country, the works were exhibited in Paris and received gold or silver awards.
Cooperation with Sergius artisans
At the very beginning of the development of art craft, Vasily Petrovich came for professional help to the masters of a well-established workshop in Trinity-Sergiev Posad. It was led first by V. I. Borutsky, and then by V. I. Sokolov. They immediately realized that a real master had come to them, and offered him a job,made by other workshop workers. These are different pieces of furniture, shelves with carvings. In manufacturing, they used burning and coloring, in addition to carving.
Despite the fact that this workshop had a well-established sales market, the experienced Vornoskov refused to carve the drawings and patterns offered to him. Even in the conditions of the general crisis of the beginning of the century, he did not want to do what he did not like. IN AND. Sokolov completely trusted the master and decided to look at the works made by Vasily Petrovich according to personal sketches.
After viewing the finished works, the head of the workshop realized that he had got a unique master with a developed imagination and artistic taste, with excellent skills in original carving.
Kudrinskaya woodcarving (see photo in the article) is considered flat-relief and consists of a thick pattern, mostly vegetable. These are leaves, branches, flowers with rounded edges, reminiscent of curls, which gives some curly ornaments.
The basis of any pattern is petals, pointed at one end and rounded at the opposite. They are connected in a continuous and rhythmic pattern. Between this stream, you can see inserts of flowers, animals or birds, fish or berries. There are even people on horseback.
A feature of Kudrin's carving can be called rounded outlines with soft contours, the naturalness of natural patterns and a combination of shadow and light, which are created using tinting stain anddifferent types of varnish - glossy and matte. Usually, not too hard wood is chosen for products, they use linden or birch.
Wooden carpentry or turning products are decorated with rows of floral ornaments, but this is not just a row of leaves and branches. Many works contain images combined into a single composition. For example, the twigs on the sides of the box may resemble oak shoots, on top of which birds are located.
The processing of the background in the Kudrinskaya carving is deliberately unsmoothed, as if leaving a clumsy trace of a knife. This is achieved by chiselling the entire surface of the object, which gives the work looseness and a certain velvety. Additional depth is added by polishing products. So, the convex ornament is covered with glossy varnish, and the recesses, on the contrary, are matte.
Even at the first stages of its history, Kudrinskaya carving had a rich color scheme. Using stains and dyes of different shades, the works were given all shades of brown, from golden to deep dark. Even V. P. Vornoskov used dark staining under oak, and also achieved gray and olive toning. However, no matter how the staining was carried out, the wood structure was clearly visible on the products.
The masters did not pursue the goal of repeating the texture of another material, any finish is intended only to emphasize the beauty of the tree and highlight the linesornament, to make them more voluminous. Sometimes items with Kudrin wood carvings were only sanded and treated with white wax.
Relief patterns do not appear immediately on a carpentry or turning product.
- First of all, a pattern is selected that matches the diameter of the tools available to the master. There is a Kudrin carving technique with a joint knife, flat or semicircular chisels, as well as cranberries.
- Then a life-size pencil sketch is performed on a sheet of paper.
The pattern is transferred onto wood using carbon paper. At the same time, they do not use a simple pencil, so as not to accidentally spoil the lines of the pattern. The drawing is translated with a sharpened hardwood stick. Some use the bone variant. Now craftsmen often take a ballpoint pen that has run out of ink for such work
Only after such preparatory work does the actual woodcarving begin.
Steps of cutting a relief pattern
The cutting process also consists of several parts:
- pricking, which is done with a vertically placed chisel. First, round curls are performed, and then the smoother sides of the leaves with a cutter knife;
- processing the background image in a "cushion" way, that is, the background is on the same level with the vertices of the main pattern. To do this, use chisels-cranberries. Sometimes they sharpen a large nail or cone, use punches orcoins;
- simulation of composite elements;
- grinding and toning;
- finishing with liquid varnish.
Unfortunately, art craft is dying out these days and is not very popular. The factory, which was previously located in the city of Khotkovo, was closed. Graduates of the Abramtsevo College named after V. M. Vasnetsov work in private workshops that produce handicrafts for sale as souvenirs. These are small utilitarian household items - plates, caskets, s alt shakers, wall panels or smoking sets.