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Types of woodcarving. Main characteristics
Types of woodcarving. Main characteristics
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Each nation has its own culture, way of life, traditions. But they all have one thing in common - the desire for beauty. And if the ancient man, when arranging housing, had the only goal - to hide from bad weather and wild animals, then with the transition to a settled life, priorities change: the development of science and culture leads to the improvement of life, housing is decorated. The development of crafts in a particular area depends on the availability of materials and fossils. So, in the region of the northern seas, where the main industries are fishing and hunting, walrus bone carving is born. Blacksmithing is developing in mountainous regions with large reserves of ore. Forest regions are rich in timber. It has long been used for housing construction and home improvement. Finishing the field work, the peasants, in order to pass the long winter evenings, are engaged in woodcarving. Over time, an exciting hobby turns into a main craft.

geometric carving

Many achieve this unprecedented skill. Products of masters have the right to compete withworks of famous artists. And why compare? With the help of a simple tool and imagination, the master's hands create unusual and rare masterpieces from the most ordinary wood. Artistic woodcarving is a truly unique phenomenon.

Wood carving: basic types

Over time, this type of applied art has not only not lost its popularity, but, on the contrary, has been developed. Depending on the type of materials used and the way they are processed, new types of woodcarving are distinguished: relief, flat-relief, sculptural, flat-cut and sawn. The main difference is the location of the pattern in relation to the surface or background of the work. Each of these types has its own methods of implementation, tasks and end results. Let's dwell on each of them in more detail.

Cut thread

This is one of the carving methods when the background is completely removed from the canvas. It also has other names: slotted or through woodcarving.

artistic carving

This term accurately describes the woodworking process. Geometric carving and relief are perfectly combined here. This is one of the oldest techniques, it requires a certain skill and skill, such as openwork through carving. The technique here is as follows: the workpiece is fixed, lined, the main drawing is applied and holes for the saw are drilled. Along the contour, filing is carried out and the subsequent preparation of the material for work: chamfering with a chisel and cleaning the workpiece with sandpaper. The effect of airiness, lightness, weightlessness is created. The work is so delicateand graceful that it is sometimes hard to believe that wood was used.

Flat carving

All types of wood carving differ in their relation to the background: it is either absent, or is in the same plane with the pattern, or is recessed a few millimeters inward. The background is the surface of the products, which is decorated with geometric shapes or floral patterns. In this case, it is removed around the surface of the pattern and cuts 5-7 millimeters deep into the canvas. The work is carried out in such a way that the background and the drawing are both in the same plane, but at the same time they look voluminous, and in different ones: the drawing rises above the background due to the recesses along its contour, but at the same time all the details are at the same height. In this style, figures of people, animals and birds, elements of the plant world are usually depicted. It all depends on the idea of ​​​​the master and the technique of execution. Most often, flat-relief carving is used in architecture and applied arts.

Embossed carving

All types of woodcarving require some skill and skill. You need to start with the simplest patterns. In order to correctly understand the essence of each element, it is better for a beginner to reproduce all new and more complex details from plasticine, and then proceed to wood processing. This also applies to relief carving.

types of woodcarving

It is rightfully considered the most picturesque. This is a pattern carved in wood, processed over the entire surface and convex in relation to the background. As an idea, images of flora and fauna, monograms,various symbols, geometric shapes. The quality of the finished product directly depends on the choice of wood. In this case, birch, oak, beech are good to use. Their wood makes it possible to clearly work out each element down to the smallest detail, to clearly highlight the contours. The background in this case is cut off in order to underestimate all the details of the ornament in relation to the main pattern at all the same points of its parts. Further, in the lower areas, the ornament is restored. Then the background is selected and polished. This is a rather labor intensive technique. Therefore, it requires patience and some experience.

Sculpture carving

Considering the main types of woodcarving, one cannot ignore the sculptural one.

through wood carving

This way of processing wood allows you to create three-dimensional images without a background - sculptures that can be viewed from all sides. The technique is used mainly in the process of making souvenirs, toys, household items, to decorate the interior.

Flat thread

A distinctive feature of this type of wood processing is the application of an ornament on a flat surface. Depending on the nature of the pattern, this can be a flat carving, that is, the pattern is displayed in the form of recesses, recesses, and flat-relief, when the ornament protrudes above the surface.

flat thread

Each of these types is subdivided into several subspecies, among which there is a flat notched geometric carving. This type is one of the simplest. It has long beenused in the decoration of various household utensils with a flat surface: cutting boards, wooden utensils, furniture. Of the tools, only a joint knife is used, and geometric shapes are used as a pattern: a square, a rhombus, a triangle, a circle, an oval, and their combinations. Interestingly, in ancient times, geometric carving was not used as a simple decoration. Each element was symbolic and served as a talisman.

So, we have considered the main types of woodcarving. Of course, this is the material of more than one article. And not even one book. The experience of masters has been passed down from generation to generation for many centuries. Something, unfortunately, has been lost, but something has been preserved, changed and developed into a new industry. And this is already a good sign. He once again proves that this type of decorative art continues to develop. And today it is no less popular than it was several centuries ago.

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