Table of contents:
- Varieties of thread
- 3D technique as aerobatics
- Preparing and getting started with wood
- Tools for the job
- 3D carving techniquestree
- Which material to use?
- Work Technique
- Wooden box: work sequence
Woodcarving is one of the most ancient and widespread forms of art. Working with a specific type of wood, carvers are able to create truly unique objects: sculptures, furniture, household utensils and much more. In the article, we will consider the varieties of volumetric woodcarving, what tools are needed for this. You will also find step-by-step instructions for making a box using this technique.
Varieties of thread
The following woodcarving techniques are distinguished:
3D or sculptural carving involves the manufacture of sculptures, large pieces of furniture and exterior.
Through thread is often called openwork and slotted. The technique is characterizedbackground removal on planar patterns. Often this method is used to decorate window shutters, cornices and furniture. In cases where through processing is attached to a base of wood, such work is called a consignment note.
Relief carving - is considered one of the most difficult. It can be subdivided into bas-relief and high-relief. Varieties, in turn, require high skill in woodworking and the availability of a wide variety of cutting tools. Most often, it is used to finish wooden furniture and decorate interior elements.
Deaf carving is a no less complicated woodworking technique. Sometimes even experienced craftsmen cannot imagine the scale and volume of work performed.
Flat or flat-relief carving is a pattern applied to a base of wood with a sharp tool. Such work can be entrusted even to a child, subject to supervision by an adult. As a rule, only those types of wood that do not delaminate, for example, linden or chestnut, are applicable as a material.
3D technique as aerobatics
Everyone is able to comprehend the art of woodcarving, but not everyone manages to master the three-dimensional technique. In order to acquire the necessary knowledge, you need to have an experienced mentor, desire, free time and talent. Mastering the art of carving three-dimensional figures on wood makes it possible to realize your wildest fantasies, recreate masterpieces of art, sculpture, composition and many other items. Not enoughone knowledge of this technique, the master at the same time must be an artist, sculptor and creative person. The process itself is highly accurate and meticulous.
Preparing and getting started with wood
3D wood carving for beginners may seem like a complicated technique. But do not despair, because skills are honed with experience. The key is to know where to start.
The principle of preparatory work is based on the correct selection of tree species. For example, it is easier to cut large elements from soft woods (pine, poplar, linden), because they are more pliable, and, conversely, for cutting small parts it is better to stay on hard wood (maple, oak).
Another important stage of preparation is the sketch. It can be depicted schematically, molded from plaster or clay, printed on a printer. It is important to remember that without a sketch, the result will be less accurate.
Tools for the job
The volumetric technique of working with wood is rather non-standard, respectively, and the tool must be suitable. These are the usual knives with chisels, and special machines. To work at home, you will need such tools for volumetric wood carving:
- Sandpaper of all factions.
- Knives of various modifications, sizes and shapes.
- Hand router with a wide range of bits.
- Chisels of different types.
- Needle files.
3D carving techniquestree
During work, the master uses various methods of planing and processing wood, among them there are several basic ones that are applicable to all types of woodcarving:
- "From myself". Used to remove edges and chamfers, especially if they are perpendicular to the grain of the wood. Work is carried out with one hand or holding the blade with the fingers of the second hand.
- Reception for removing a thick layer of wood in the direction of its fibers. The knife is grasped with one or both hands, while the tip is directed towards you. A cut is made with strong chest pressure on the hands. If you need to remove a large layer, but there is not enough room for maneuverability, pressure on the hands is performed by the body.
- "Pull" - a cutting technique when the blade is directed towards the left hand, and the movement is made towards the thumb.
Which material to use?
For volumetric wood carving, it is recommended to use soft woods such as maple, alder, linden and aspen.
In particular, linden is distinguished, due to its uniformity, plasticity and pliability when carved. Aspen and alder are used a little less often. Before working with aspen, it is advisable to steam it for two to three hours and then keep it in the shade for about a day. After drying, the timber, on which cracks have appeared, is processed by cutting off the ends.
Wood should not have any flaws in the form of rot, cracks, voids.
Volumetric woodcarving (photos of works are presented in the article)done like this:
- First of all, the contours of the future product are applied to the beam and unnecessary parts are cut down. They do this with the help of a chisel, then they work out the main outlines of the figure with it.
- After that, they start working with a knife and rasps of different sizes, giving a smoother outline. At the same time, the actions are careful and soft, the thinnest layer of wood is cut off. The sculpture, as it were, is painted with a cutting tool that leaves grooves on it. The lines imitate human facial features, bird feathers, animal skin, horse mane, veins on plants and other elements.
- All cuts are made small, processing the surface from all sides. If it is planned to make holes in the sculpture, they are cut at the final stage.
- It is advisable to wet hard and dry wood during the cutting process.
- The master grinds the finished product with sandpaper or leaves it unchanged.
- Then it is left to dry. In the event of cracks, they are filled with wedges, taking into account the direction of the wood fibers.
Wooden box: work sequence
To perform three-dimensional woodcarving on a box (the photo of the product is presented below), you will need: cutting tools, a pencil, a box blank.
Work in progress in stages:
- First of all, round the corners of the workpiece.
- Then, a pattern is drawn around the entire perimeter of the box so that the lid and the bottom look harmonious.
- 3D cutting in progress,special attention is whitened to small details.
- Each piece is meticulously skinned.
- The box is covered with several layers of varnish.
- Velvet is cut and pasted inside.
It is better to master the technique of wood cutting from the simplest and smallest figures. In the process of work, each carver acquires his own secrets of skill, understands how best to perform this or that element, how it is more convenient to hold the tool, and so on. The main thing is not to be afraid. Feel free to make your dreams come true.