Dice and its distribution
Dice and its distribution

Currently, it is no longer possible to accurately determine the date of the appearance of the first cubes and their author. In history, a huge number of hoaxes on this topic have been piled up, because many inventors attributed this primacy to themselves. However, the dice found by archaeologists, which practically does not differ from the modern one, has dotted the "i". This event took place during the excavations of the ancient Iranian city of Shahri-Sukhta, which existed more than five millennia ago. Included with the cube was a board for playing backgammon, which indicates the popularity of this hobby in those days.



Before these events, the opinions of scientists about where the dice was invented differed. Indeed, in the later historical writings of India and Greece, there are references to the invention of the game of dice by specific people, who, as it turned out, only presented a curiosity to the public. For example, representatives of Hellas claimed that Palamedes gave cubes to bored soldiers who whiled away the time in the siege of Troy. The ethnos of India, on the other hand, referred to the disparaging recommendations of the Buddha, who claimed that a self-respectinga person will not plunge himself into the abyss of excitement and throw dice.

Local traditions

dice probability

In the community of Kievan Rus, this fun has undergone some transformations. The result of them was the game of "grandmothers" - entertainment for children and women, which was aimed at developing dexterity. The dice in this case consisted of the vertebrae of ungulates, into which, if necessary, lead could be poured. Old Russian cubes largely inherited their ancestors, starting with the form and ending with their use.


During further periods of history, the popularity of bones only increased. Everyone who could afford it played them. Indeed, in a fit of excitement, one could not only lose property, but also one's spouse or even one's own freedom, because in the days of slavery, such an outcome was more than obvious.

The Germans, Byzantines, and later Landsknechts were known as the most zealous players who deified this process of competing with fortune and, in order to attract her attention, decorated the bones with skillful carvings. Cubes were made from precious wood, bone and even metal. Already at that troubled time, the first cheaters began to appear, who wanted to cash in on naive simpletons. In order for victory to always remain on their side, they made one side of the die heavier, as a result of which the dice acquired an offset relative to its center of gravity and the chance of some of its faces appearing was much higher. Also, starting from the eleventh century, from the Eastern Roman Empire,the art of divination with the help of similar-looking chips. It has become as popular as the traditional methods adopted in the past.

large dice

In the Middle Ages, numerous attempts were made to legally limit cubes, but they all met with silent resistance from society and were only declarative. As you can see, all these attempts failed, because the dice are still used in the gambling industry.

Modern application

Now the standard cubes are the same construction that was used before. However, for use in a casino, a certain standard was needed that would exclude fraud. Therefore, it was decided to unify all small and large dice and accept only those whose face is 16 millimeters in diameter. At the same time, as a result of checking the probability of occurrence of some combinations, it was found that when drilling points on the surface of the cube, its center of gravity shifts. Therefore, modern dice are marked with color, which does not lead to the formation of distortions in the functioning of the source of randomness. Methods for marking the faces of a cube were also approved, the total sum of the three sides of which is always equal to 7. When applying digital marks from 1 to 3 clockwise relative to the corner, these chips are called right, if vice versa - left.

Random number generator

a dice is thrown twice

It is because of all these processes that a fully balanced gaminga die, the probability of falling out of each side of which does not exceed 1/6, symbolizes blind luck and allows you to completely trust it. The results of the die roll are random, as the process is accompanied by many uncertain factors, ranging from the position of the player's hand to his position or the energy of his movements. In a sense, this process can be called a random number generator, but their values ​​will always be within certain limits. However, if there is doubt about the die, then they can be easily dispelled - the die is thrown twice, and the results very rarely match. After all, the chips have rounded corners, which allows it to roll on the surface of the table with minimal resistance. Therefore, dice are very widely used in the modern world, from gambling to Monopoly or its analogues.

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