Table of contents:
- Origin of the word
- Modern definitions
- Notion in other countries of the world
- What is not handicraft?
- Handicraft and economic sectors
- Special activity
- Artisan status
- Education and training of specialists
- Problems of handicraft in Russia
- Preparation of legislation
- Necessary measures
Handicraft accompanied mankind at the most important stages of its development. But what is the status of handicraft activity today in the world and, in particular, in Russia? Unfortunately, both ordinary and scientific ideas about the craft are now rather vague and contradictory. Someone considers it a kind of "rudiment" of the modern economy. And someone, on the contrary, defines it as a unique economic, social phenomenon that is characteristic and relevant for all eras. In the article we will analyze in detail what is called handicraft activity, what is its significance in the modern Russian Federation.
Origin of the word
"Craft" originally comes from the Old Russian word "remism". Close in meaning is also "handicraft". It is closer in meaning to foreign ones: English. handicraft and it. handwerk.
"Craft" is the most modern sound of the word. So our ancestors began to speak only in the 17th century.
Craft activity - doing somethingor from types of crafts. It can be aimed at the production of labor products, which are handicrafts, which are designed to meet the aesthetic, utilitarian, ritual and other needs of citizens.
Craft activity is a cultural and creative transformation of the surrounding reality, taking place in the conditions of alienation of the labor force, as well as the means of production from the subject carrying out such activities, as well as from the functional restrictions associated with the division of labor.
Handicraft is also defined as a system of social relations that appears in the process of production and sale of products made by small businesses, family farms, where there is no functional division of labor. Here the means of production will be owned (or rented) from the producing entity. As a rule, products for all types of handicraft activities are made in small quantities. For the most part - as part of an individual order.
In such a system, both subjects of handicraft activity and handicraft agents will operate. Who is it? They are entities that provide a variety of support for handicrafts. For example, state, public, municipal, commercial, private organizations.
Let's look at the types of handicraft activities that exist today. They are divided depending on the results of handicraft:
- Production relations that arise in the process of creating, selling any products of individual creativity. The latter can be unique samples and models, works of art and crafts, author's developments, etc.
- Production relations that arise during the creation and further sale of products designed to meet the needs of any specific citizens. Example: custom made products.
- Production relations that arise in the process of creation and further sale of small-scale production items sold individually. They, for example, can be consumer goods.
- Production relations that arise regarding the implementation of any household services. For example, housing and communal services.
Notion in other countries of the world
It should be noted that the implementation of handicraft activities is not something unusual today for the leading countries of the world. Terms such as "handicraft", "artisan" are widely used in the national legislations of the countries of the same European Union, the UN and the WTO.
Let's analyze international interpretations of the most important concepts:
- Craft enterprises. This is the name of small business structures (reminiscent of Russian individual entrepreneurs) that provide the population with the services and goods necessary for arranging everyday life and a comfortable life. The purpose of such products is quite wide: from the improvement of the premises to changing the appearance of a person.
- Craft activity(in its foreign sense). A complex of labor activity (entrepreneurial and / and production), which is based on a personal contribution, the work of an employee. At the same time, he applies his special knowledge, skills, uses well-known technologies and materials. Can use modern high-performance equipment and tools up to the automation of some parts, stages of the technological process.
Craft production activities in this vein do not include those that result in any intellectual product/service.
What is not handicraft?
The list of handicraft activities also excludes some types of employment based on physical labor.
- Activity that does not require the performer to have any qualifications. For example, work as a janitor or loader.
- Activities related to transportation, use of vehicles. So, drivers, pilots will not be able to call themselves artisans.
- Activity that is associated with the sale of non-own products, products. This is a job as a salesman, packer, etc.
- Activities related to agricultural extractive industries. For example, a livestock breeder, prospector, field grower, etc.
- Activities in the public sector of the economy. These are such niches as economics, education, communications, he althcare, culture, etc.
- All activities carried out in enterprises of large and mediumscale. Handicraft is only the activity of small organizations (average staff - from 15 to 100 people) and micro-enterprises (average number of employees - up to 15 people), as well as individual entrepreneurs.
Handicraft and economic sectors
The entire list of handicraft activities can be conditionally divided into three sectors of the economy:
- Industry. For example, non-serial, small-scale production of art products.
- Housing and communal, consumer services.
It is worth noting that such a division of the list of handicraft activities was also relevant for pre-revolutionary Russia.
Handicraft is also defined as a special type of entrepreneurship in which the quality of a product or service comes to the fore. Making a profit is a secondary result of such a business.
Artisan-IP is forced to focus on the local market. He not only must study his immediate environment, but also establish a trusting relationship with him. After all, these people will become his customers.
To achieve recognition, an artisan needs to flawlessly, conscientiously do his job, cultivate a high technological and production culture at his own enterprise.
As you know, the main motto of the business community: "Profit above all else!". Artisans have a fundamentally different position: "Honor and good nameabove all!"
Another feature of handicraft is that it combines quite diverse activities. Therefore, for example, in the Russian market, an artisan is a new type of worker.
How to arrange craft activities? The question is quite complicated in relation to the laws of the Russian Federation. After all, in our country there is no legislation regulating handicrafts. The only possible option is to register an individual entrepreneur or establish an LLC.
The problem also rests on the ambiguous status of the artisan:
- Highly classified worker.
- Technologist who manages the entire process of producing their own products.
- An entrepreneur who works in direct contact with consumers of his own products. He has all the competencies that are important for a business person - legal, economic, communicative.
Education and training of specialists
It has already been noted that the law on the implementation of handicraft activities by individuals has so far only been discussed in Russia. Therefore, the question of training specialists of a new type has not yet been raised. Since the status of an artisan is diverse, the organization of training for specialists in this area requires a special approach. Radically different in methodology, structure and content from the same training of highly skilled workers.
The following is required:
- Updated educational programs that will be supplemented with competency blocks,focused on the formation of important professional qualities of an artisan entrepreneur.
- Special organizational-methodological and scientific-methodological knowledge base.
- Creation of a qualitatively new level of education - professional handicraft.
Problems of handicraft in Russia
A tax on handicraft activities, for example, was introduced in the neighboring republic of Belarus. But for the Russian Federation, it is not relevant yet - in our country, legislation on handicrafts has not been adopted.
This type of activity faces certain development difficulties in Russia:
- Misunderstanding and underestimation of the role and importance of modern handicrafts by the majority of society.
- The majority of the population under handicraft activity means only folk crafts, art products.
- The absence of both a legislative framework and professional standards for handicrafts.
- The above factor does not allow organizing high-quality training of artisan entrepreneurs.
Preparation of legislation
Fees for the implementation of handicraft activities in Russia have not yet been introduced. The fact is that in the Russian Federation there is no legislation regulating such employment yet.
But things are moving forward. The project "New artisans of Russia" was created. He was supported by the head of the National Council of the ASI (decoding - the Agency for Strategic Initiatives), President of the Russian Federation V.V. Putin. Herecommended the project for implementation in 2012.
The goal of the "New Artisans" is to develop a legislative framework for the legitimization of handicraft activities in the Russian Federation. Through the development of such federal legislation, it will also be possible to form a qualitatively new type, level of education, that is, the training of artisan entrepreneurs.
As a result, young people will have new opportunities due to the development of the handicraft niche of the economy, the emergence of new relevant professions on the market. The implementation of the project will launch the process of developing professional standards, educational programs, which will expand the possibilities of personal realization of the population.
The complexity of the implementation of the New Craftsmen project lies in the fact that its implementation requires the following measures:
- Introduction of a special tax regime for artisans with simplified registration and reporting.
- Development and adoption of a federal target program for ten years, related to the support of handicrafts in the Russian Federation.
- Development of educational and professional standards.
- Introduction for this area of honorary, incentive titles. For example, "Honored Craftsman of the Russian Federation".
- Establishing a special procedure for the participation of subjects of similar activities as suppliers, performers, contractors.
- Organization of regional, all-Russian competitions that will identify the best, promising masters.
Handicraft can be called one of the most ancient types of human employment. It does not lose its relevance even now in many leading states. In Russia, today there is no legislation regulating such activities. But work is already underway on a project that will establish a new status as an artisan.