Table of contents:

The world chess champion is the king of the chess world
The world chess champion is the king of the chess world
Anonim

Many people know that sport hardens the body, teaches to be hardy, courageous and achieve the goal. However, this is still far from everything. Sports also help to increase the level of intellectual development. Chess is a great example. Most people refer to this game as entertainment and one of the ways to pass the time. If you delve deeper, you can understand that chess is a very organized and widespread sport. It has its own hierarchy, many different organizations that hold all kinds of tournaments and competitions. The only difference between chess and other active varieties is that they are not on the list of the Olympic Games. Although there is a kind of compensation for this omission. So, every two years the Olympiad is held in the world, which attracts not only world chess champions among women and men, but also beginners who want to show their outstanding abilities

world chess champion

The birth of the sport: Indian Chaturanga

There is a legend according to which this game is firmly established in lifesociety. A long time ago in India, a brahmin (priest) created a chaturanga - entertainment, which was a board with squares alternating in color. Figures were placed on these cells. This game was made for the King, the Rajah, who was bored in the palace. The ruling lady liked the invention so much that, as a reward, he offered the Brahmin to choose whatever he wanted. And the clergyman timidly asked for grain. But in such a way that one grain was initially placed on the first cell. There are already two on the second cell, on the third it was necessary to put four grains and so on. Later it turned out that there was not enough grain in the whole kingdom in order to pay for the wonderful gift of the Brahmin. Gradually the game was slightly modified. The main difference between chaturanga and chess is the number of players. If two players take part in the modern version, then the ancient game allowed two pairs of people to be combined. Steps in chaturanga were determined by rolling dice.

first world chess champion

Managing Organizations

Slowly the game spread around the globe. It is noteworthy that neither religious nor political communities had anything against this entertainment. Currently, the main organization involved in holding various tournaments is the International Chess Federation, abbreviated as FIDE. It was founded in the twenties of the twentieth century. At the end of the second millennium, world chess champion Garry Kasparov created the PCHA, the Professional Chess Association, which lasted only three years.However, in such a short time, she managed to “forge” many strong athletes. A World Chess Champion who has been trained and validated by the PCA is considered a “classical champion.”

Young talent from Norway

Although the sport in question has a long history of its development, international tournaments in it began to be held relatively recently. The last battle for the chess crown took place a few months ago. The tournament, held in the Indian city of Chennai, showed the public a stunning result. For the first time in the history of championships, such a young young man won. Twenty-two-year-old Norwegian Magnus Carlsen was awarded the title of "World Chess Champion". In a fair duel, the young grandmaster defeated the Indian master Viswanathan Anand. In just ten games, the tournament ended in favor of the young grandmaster. Today, the reigning World Chess Champion from Norway tops the list of the world's most outstanding chess players. In this ranking, Levon Aronian is in second place after Magnus Carlsen. Vladimir Kramnik, a native of Russia, closes the top three. In addition to a serious passion for chess, Magnus Carlsen has proven himself well in the modeling business. His photos often grace the cover of the popular GQ magazine.

13th world chess champion

Back to the home of the game

The ex-world chess champion was born in India. His name is Viswanathan Anand. He won the title of the best player in the world in 2007. The grandmaster was born in the state of Madras in 1969. FirstHis mother was a Hindu teacher. She taught the future famous grandmaster how to checkmate. Viswanathan soon becomes the best player in India. Since 1993, Anand has been successfully participating in various world championship tournaments. The title of "World Chess Champion" Indian receives in 2007, beating Vladimir Kramnik. A year later, Viswanathan Anand confirms his title, having successfully performed against Bonn. In 2013, a young Norwegian took the place of the Indian.

The way to the Soviet masters

Vladimir Kramnik is known to society as the fourteenth world chess champion. The native city of the talented grandmaster is Tuapse. Vladimir was born there in 1975. Kramnik is one of those who with dignity and pride bears the title of champion in "classical chess" according to the Professional Chess Association. In addition, Vladimir Borisovich is the Honored Master of Sports of Russia in this sport.

In 1991, Kramnik was awarded the title of International Grandmaster. Until that moment, his highest achievement was the title of world champion among juniors. Vladimir has repeatedly brilliantly represented Russia at international olympiads as part of the national team.

Kramnik's first significant victory was in 2000. It was then in London that the Russian checkmated his compatriot, the previous world champion Garry Kasparov. Four years later, Vladimir met at the chessboard with Peter Leko. After a long struggle, the Russian defended his high rank. In 2006, Kramnik unified the title of the PCA world champion with a similar title according to FIDE, beating Veselin Topalov in the unification match. A year later, he passes the high title to a native of India - Viswanathan Anand.

games of world chess champions

Thirteenth world champion

Another fairly well-known figure in the chess world is Garry Kasparov. Grandmaster was born in 1963. A native of Baku originally bore the surname Weinstein. For the first time, his father put him at the chessboard. Harry was then five years old. In 1976, the first significant event in the boy's life took place, and he became the champion of the USSR in chess among juniors. Two years later, Kasparov brilliantly wins the Sokolsky Memorial tournament, which was held in Minsk. Thanks to this event, Harry was awarded the title of master of sports.

In 1980, Kasparov graduated from high school with a gold medal. The same year was marked by another important event in the life of a young man. In Dortmund, he was awarded the title of World Junior Champion. At the time, Kasparov was the youngest grandmaster in the world.

At the age of eighteen, the young talent becomes the champion of the USSR. The grandmaster's first entry into adult sports took place in 1984. Anatoly Karpov became his rival. The games played by the world chess champions became record-breaking in terms of their duration. The match lasted several months: from September 1984 to February 1985. The tournament ended with Karpov's victory. The next meeting of the two masters took place in September 1985. The venue for the competition was Moscow. It was here that the 13th world champion was determinedon chess. It was Garry Kasparov, who beat the previous “king of the board and pawn” with a score of 13:11. Until the beginning of the twenty-first century, the talented grandmaster repeatedly proved his right to possess a high title, first according to FIDE, and then according to the PSHA. Fifteen years after the momentous event, the Russian master lost the tournament to his compatriot, Vladimir Kramnik. Accordingly, the title of world champion was also lost.

second world chess champion

Gifted Title

Anatoly Karpov is the twelfth world chess champion. A native of the Russian city of Zlatoust, he was born in 1951. Thanks to his father, Karpov first learned about the world of chess at the age of five. At the age of fourteen, Anatoly becomes a master of sports in this form. An interesting fact is that Karpov received the title of world champion. Having achieved high results in youth matches, the young talent entered the international tournament. His opponent was to be Robert James Fisher. However, shortly before the start of the match, the American refused to participate. Thus, Anatoly Karpov received the title of the twelfth world champion. In subsequent years, the grandmaster proved that he was worthy of the high title he had received. The chess player very successfully performed at various competitions. On account of his victory in Milan in 1975. Following the Italian triumph, no less impressive successes followed in Manila, Rovinj-Zagreb and other cities. Karpov became the champion of the USSR three times. The grandmaster also holds the world record for the number ofvictories. For the entire time of the existence of this sport, no one has been able to achieve such results as Anatoly Karpov achieved.

reigning world chess champion

American Bobby

Robert James Fischer is the first US world chess champion. He is known to the world community as Bobby. Chess Information magazine named the American the best player of the twentieth century. The gift of playing chess was revealed in him by his sister. Bobby actively developed his skills, and at the age of thirteen he won the title of US Youth Chess Champion. A year later, he raised his rank in the adult championship, becoming the youngest athlete to achieve dizzying success at such a young age. At the age of fifteen, Fischer becomes a grandmaster, leaving behind the result of Boris Spassky, who received this title at the age of seventeen. With the same chess player, the first Bobby World Tournament took place. In 1972, Fischer checkmates the Soviet-French grandmaster and receives the title of champion.

Tenth world championship winner

Boris Spassky was born in 1937 in Leningrad. He learned to play chess at the age of five. In the fifties of the twentieth century, Boris Vasilyevich for the first time takes part in the final stage of the USSR championship and wins with brilliance. In the same year, Spassky received the title of International Grandmaster. At the age of thirty-two, he becomes the world chess champion by beating Tigran Petrosyan. A few years later, he passes the high rank to the American Bobby Fischer.

Soviet grandmasters

Tigran Petrosyan was born in 1929 in Tbilisi. The Soviet chess player received the title of international grandmaster in 1952. After some time, he becomes the Honored Master of Sports of the Soviet Union. Having won the Candidates Tournament in 1962, Tigran enters the world level. There he won the world title, which had previously belonged to his compatriot Mikhail Botvinnik. Seven years later, the title passes to Boris Spassky.

The list of world championship winners is dominated by Soviet men's world chess champions. In addition to the above, they also include Vasily Smyslov, Alexander Alekhin, Mikhail Tal and Mikhail Botvinnik. The latter is the first Soviet champion in this sport.

Mikhail Botvinnik was born in 1911 in the Vyborg province. Thirty-seven years after his birth, Mikhail becomes the world chess champion, having beaten an opponent from Amsterdam, Max Euwe. For all the time of participation in the competition, Botvinnik played twelve hundred games.

fifth world chess champion

Passing title to each other

Mikhail Botvinnik's predecessor Max Euwe is the fifth world chess champion. His birthplace is Amsterdam. From the age of four, the boy began to be interested in chess. At the age of ten, he began to participate in competitions. And in 1935, Max Euwe was awarded the title of world chess champion.

The title passed to him, so to speak, by inheritance from grandmaster Alexander Alekhine.The Soviet chess player for quite a long time confidently dominated other athletes. Alekhine received the title of world chess champion after a tournament with the invincible José Raul Capablanca in 1927. Once the title was lost. This happened in 1935 in a match with Max Euwe. However, after some time the championship was restored. The Soviet grandmaster is the only person in the history of the sport to die undefeated.

Chess Machine

Jose Raul Capablanca y Graupera was born in 1888 in Havana. In the history of chess, it is known as the "chess machine". So Capablanca was nicknamed for the absence of errors during the games. The Cuban won his championship title in 1921. Emanuel Lasker became his opponent. Capablanca challenged the eminent grandmaster long before the tournament took place. However, Lasker still did not agree to play with the young talent. Confident victories one after another pursued José Raul, until in 1927 he was called to a match by Alexander Alekhine. Then the crown of the ruler of the chess world changed its owner. They became a native of the Soviet Union.

women's world chess champions

Psychology and play

The second world chess champion is Emanuel Lasker. He was born in 1868 in Germany. He owns an amazing record in the world of chess: the champion title belonged to the German for twenty-seven years. This has never happened before in the history of this sport. Many scientists call Lasker a "pioneer" in the field of psychologicalapproach to chess. In 1894, at the World Championships in New York, Emanuel won his first victory. He was awarded the title of champion. He successfully performed until the age of 68.In 1836, Wilhelm Steinitz, the first world chess champion, was born in Prague. His teachings had a huge impact on the further successful development of the entire history of chess. The title of world champion was awarded to Steinitz at a fairly mature age. At that time, he was fifty years old.

Popular topic