Queen's Indian Defence: History and Theory
Queen's Indian Defence: History and Theory
Anonim

The Queen's Indian Defense is a well-known but rather young chess opening. He is about ninety years old. The term "opening" in chess denotes the initial interval of the game, which follows from the beginning of the game until the end of the development of the pieces by the players. The Queen's Indian Defense in chess was developed and used for the first time by Aron Isaevich Nimtsovich in 1914. His followers in the development and promotion of this beautiful opening were the contender for the title of world champion, chess theorist and great chess player Alexander Alexandrovich Alekhin.

Alexander Alekhin

In the eighties of the last century, this opening was used many times by the twelfth world chess champion and a great connoisseur of strategic chess Anatoly Evgenievich Karpov. The Queen's Indian Defense is not widely used at the highest level of play because it does not allow black to play actively. With its use, Black can only get a reliable strong position and approximate equality with the exact play of both opponents.

Beginning of debut

The opening of the Queen's Indian Defense begins with the movement of the white pawn to the d4 square, after which Black respondswith the knight's move to f6. White's second move moves the pawn to c4, while Black moves the e-pawn to e7. And as a third, White brings his knight to f3, while Black, preparing to fianchet his light-squared bishop, advances the b-pawn to b7. This is where the beginning of the debut ends. After that, several continuations are possible.

Main continuation

The main continuation is g3 for White. With this fourth move, White prepares the fianchetting of his light-squared bishop, thereby, as it were, opposing it to Black's light-squared bishop on the main diagonal of the board. Black's strong bishop, which will control this diagonal in the future, is one of the strongest pieces in Black's camp. Therefore, the idea with g3 takes a well-deserved first place among several continuations.

The next move, Black brings his dark-squared bishop to b4, declaring check to the white king, and at the same time prepares for the king's castling on the kingside. On the fifth move, White, forced to defend the king from check, brings his dark-squared bishop to d2, while Black exchanges on the d2-square. On the sixth move, the white queen goes to d2, and black castles the king to the short side. After that, White will most likely castle the king in the same way, and Black will advance his pawn to d5, thus expressing his intentions to fight for the center.

Botvinnik system

This continuation is considered to be the maneuver of the knight on c3. With this move, White wants to immediately strengthen his superiority in the center, hinting at the advance of the pawn to e4. Black responds by developing his bishop on b7. On the fifth move, White can realizethe pawn's maneuver e forward to the fourth rank, denoting his dominance in the center of the board, or limit himself to advancing the same pawn just one square, opening the way for the light-squared officer. Black will try to ease the tension a bit by activating his officer and moving him to b4.

Subsequently, White will probably bring his queen to c2 or b3, trying to force the exchange of the enemy piece, or poke the e-pawn, which will lead to exchanges on c3. Following this, Black will bring the pawn to d5 and will fully fight for the center of the board, while White, having a slight advantage in space, will begin to try to hold this center and develop his advantage during the game.

Mikhail Botvinnik

Petrosyan system

It was developed and practiced by the Soviet, ninth world chess champion, Tigran Vartanovich Petrosyan. This version of the Queen's Indian Defense begins with a pawn move to a3. With this fourth move, White prevents the dark-squared bishop from reaching b4, thereby providing a comfortable position for his knight on c3. Black, without wasting time, can immediately place his pawn on d5. Afterwards, White takes the dark-squared officer to g5, pinning the knight and threatening to exchange on d5.

If Black, after this maneuver, does not relieve the queen from the pin by placing his bishop on e7, then he runs the risk of being left without a strong fighter on b7 or finding him locked by his own pawn, which will be considered an absolutely unsuccessful way out of the opening. At the end of these maneuvers, White will most likely play e3, and theycalmly finish the development, while Black castles the king and moves his knight from b8 to e7, getting a secure position. Positions will be approximately equal.

Tigran Petrosyan

Miles Variant

This opening variation begins on White's fourth move by moving the black-squared officer to f4. After that, White will probably fianchette his light-squared counterpart. On the fifth move, a good move would be to move the pawn to a3, which would allow comfortable placement of the knight on c3, and for Black, the officer's calm exit to e7 with the preparation of castling to the short side. The knight's move already described will be next, and Black will castle. After that, White will play e3 and complete the development, while Black will play d5 and bring the b-knight to e7, also ending the development.

Tony Miles

The described opening is semi-closed. Despite the fact that it is considered defensive, the Queen's Indian Defense can be used as Black in the vast majority of situations. If you are not a top-level grandmaster who plays in a serious responsible tournament, it will suit everyone who needs a reliable strong position without aggravations at the start of the game. The Queen's Indian Defense for White is a no less convenient system that allows you to comfortably develop and increase your advantage due to the opponent's defensive strategy at the beginning of the game.

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